What is Bauhaus:
Bauhaus is the name of a school of architecture and design founded by Walter Gropius in Germany in 1919, after the end of the First World War. His full name is Staatliche Bauhaus, which translates as House of State Construction.
Bauhaus headquarters in Dessau
The Bauhaus was created with the purpose of helping to rebuild German society after the devastation of the war, so it played an important role in the recovery of the industrial park.
It was based in three cities: first in Weimar, then in Dessau and, finally, in Berlin. Among the directors of the Bauhaus are Walter Gropius, founder, Hannes Meyer and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who had to face harassment from the Nazi authorities who, finally, ended up closing the Bauhaus in 1933.
Part of his teaching lines, in addition to including a new approach to architectural design, were extended to areas such as industrial design and graphic design, which until then did not exist as a differentiated profession. In this school the foundations were laid for modern architecture and design, in which function is a pivotal element. According to his principles, form should follow function and not vice versa.
The Bauhaus school pioneered the teaching of new techniques and resources that became basic elements of the visual culture of future times. Photography, photomontage, avant-garde art, collage, typography, ergonomics, functionality and much more would become part of the content to be studied, which gave a twist to art education.
Likewise, the Bauhaus educational plan offered a comprehensive education that involved both technical knowledge and artistic, social and human training. In effect, their program of integral human-social formation was one of the causes of the persecution they suffered from the Nazi party.
- Art deco.
- Industrial design.