What is Botany:
Botany is the scientific discipline that deals with the study, description and classification of plants, as well as their relationships with each other, with other organisms and with their environment. It is a branch of biology.
The word, as such, comes from Latin botanicus, which in turn comes from the Greek βοτανικός (botanikós), derived from βοτάνη (botánē), which means 'grass'.
Botany mainly studies the kingdoms plantae, which encompasses terrestrial plants; fungi, which includes fungi, and chromista, mainly algae. All these organisms have in common the presence of chloroplasts and the lack of mobility.
Botany is a broad field that is subdivided into different specific branches that deal with the study of specific aspects of plants. Among them we find:
- Phytochemistry, which is responsible for the chemical composition of plants;
- Plant cytology, which studies cell organization;
- Plant histology, which deals with the formation of tissues;
- Plant physiology, which analyzes the functioning of metabolism;
- Phytography, which deals with the growth and development, as well as the morphology of plants;
- Plant genetics, which focuses on issues such as reproduction and heredity;
- Phytopathology, which includes studies on diseases in plants;
- Ecology, in which the relationships with their environment are analyzed;
- Phytogeography, which deals with studying the geographical distribution of plants;
- Paleobotany, which is responsible for the research and analysis of plant fossils.
Plants are very important for life on planet Earth, because in addition to being the main recipients of solar energy, they are also responsible for the generation of oxygen. Furthermore, practically everything we eat or use is directly or indirectly related to plants and their processes.
On the other hand, the knowledge provided by a discipline such as botany is extremely important for the life and expansion of scientific knowledge, hence not only biologists, but also agronomists, foresters, pharmacists, doctors and anthropologists. study.
The plants are collected and cataloged in herbaria. There they are dried and described for study and preservation.
Botanical gardens also serve this purpose, since they contribute to the study, preservation and dissemination of plant diversity. And, unlike the herbarium, in the botanical garden the plants are displayed alive.