What is Brexit:
Brexit is a neologism created to refer to the departure of the United Kingdom from the European Union, whose official date was January 31, 2020. The brexit It was preceded by a process of parliamentary deliberations between the parties that began in a citizen referendum held on June 23, 2016.
The term brexit It results from the union of two abbreviated English words: Britain, which means 'British', and exit, which translates 'output'. It was popularized in the media about the campaign for the referendum that asked British citizens their opinion about permanence (brimain = Britain remain) or output (brexit) of the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland in the European Union.
Background and causes of Brexit
The UK has a long history of opposition to the European Union. Already in 1975 a referendum had been held to ask the public for their opinion regarding the United Kingdom's permanence in the European Union, eventually known as the European Economic Community, to which it had joined in 1973. That referendum gave the triumph to permanence.
However, over the years a major economic crisis became apparent, which coincided with the worsening of the refugee crisis and the exponential increase in the number of immigrants to the British Isles, from other European countries. This gave elements for the supporters of the separation between the United Kingdom and the European Union to build a political majority.
See also What is the European Union?
Referendum for Brexit
On June 23, 2016, the Brexit referendum took place. It was activated by the Prime Minister, David Cameron, a member of the Conservative Party, who was in favor of permanence. Brexit won with 52% of the votes in favor and 48% of the votes against.
Of the four nations that make up the United Kingdom (England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland), only England and Wales voted overwhelmingly for the exit, while Scotland and Northern Ireland, as well as the city of London, were in favor of permanence.
Once the results were known, David Cameron resigned and Theresa May assumed the position of prime minister.
Brexit campaign: advantages and disadvantages of belonging to the EU
The campaign in favor of brexit It was promoted by different political and social actors of the Eurosceptic and independence line, who considered it disadvantageous and harmful to the interests of the United Kingdom to be part of the European Union.
Among the disadvantages of being part of the European Union, those favorable to brexit they counted:
- The regulations imposed by the EU in economic matters.
- Lack of independence in political and economic decisions.
- The huge flow of immigrants attracted by the high level of income in search of work.
The supporters of permanence, for their part, campaigned based on the advantages of belonging to the European Union. Among them we can list the main ones:
- The free market to which one had access with the member countries of the union.
- The free movement of goods, people and capital within the union.
It was called exit agreement to a proposal presented by British Prime Minister Theresa May to the British Parliament to negotiate Brexit. This agreement included the following aspects:
- Establish a transition period to negotiate Brexit conditions and prepare for possible consequences and collateral damage.
- Pay the EU an amount equivalent to 50,000 million dollars in compensation for the cancellation of the commitments acquired by the United Kingdom when joining.
- Guarantee the acquired rights of the citizens of the United Kingdom in the countries of the European Union and vice versa.
- Impose a safeguard measure that prevents the establishment of a physical border between Northern Ireland, a member of the United Kingdom, and Ireland.
The exit agreement was categorically rejected by the British Parliament on January 15, 2019, with 432 votes against and only 202 in favor.