Characteristics of the animal cell
The animal cell is characterized by having a cell nucleus for what is called eukaryotic. In addition, it is the basic unit of all the tissues and organs of the organism of the animal kingdom and is responsible for the vital and essential functions for life, its nutrition and its reproduction.
Animal cells are divided by functions such as:
- epithelial cells protect the skin, cavities and organs,
- bone cells that form supporting bones,
- cells of the immune system that protect organisms from disease,
- blood cells that carry nutrients and oxygen,
- among many other functions.
In this sense, the animal cell exercises all vital functions and all of them are characterized by having the following parts:
- Cell or plasma membrane: envelope of the cell that separates it from the external environment. It is semi-permeable.
- Cytoplasm: fluid in which the other cell structures are found.
- Cell nucleus: place where the nucleolus is located, which produces ribosomes, and the genetic material in the form of chromosomes.
- Lysosomes: organelles in the cytoplasm that contain digestive enzymes fulfilling 3 functions: recycling of disused structures, digestion of pathogens and decomposition of molecules.
Furthermore, animal cells obey the cell cycle of every eukaryotic cell (with a cell nucleus), which is made up of the interface and the mitotic phase. In this last phase, asexual (mitosis) or sexual (meiosis) cell division occurs.
Animal and plant cell
The animal cell and the plant cell are both eukaryotic cells therefore both have a cell nucleus, ribosomes larger than that of prokaryotic cells and more complex genetic material.
The animal cell differs from the plant cell by having a smaller vacuole, centrioles that form flagella or cilia, and not having a cell wall like plant cells or chloroplasts.
The animal cell is typical of heterotrophic beings, that is, organisms that feed on other living beings.