Animal cell meaning
What is Animal Cell:
The animal cell is one that makes up various animal tissues. It is of the eukaryotic type and can reproduce independently.
Animals and humans have a large number of cells that are essential for our lives.
Each animal cell is composed of three important parts that are the cell membrane, the cytoplasm and the cell nucleus, which, in turn, are composed of other vital parts for the cell to fulfill its function.
Parts of the animal cell
Below are the internal parts of the animal cell and their functions.
Cell or plasma membrane
It is the cell envelope that is characterized by being the outer part that delimits the cell and by its thickness.
The cell membrane is made up mainly of lipids or fats, in particular phospholipids and cholesterol, forming a lipid double layer like a sealed bag.
Embedded in this lipid layer are protein channels or passageways. Thanks to these channels or transporters, substances necessary for metabolism enter and ions or waste products leave.
This is why the membrane is semi-permeable, it only allows the passage of some substances into and from the interior of the cell.
The cytoplasm is a part of the cell composed of a gelatinous fluid in which the various structures that make up the animal cell are found and where different chemical reactions are carried out. They are specialized parts of the cell.
The structures that are in the cytoplasm are cellular organelles: mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and centrioles.
The mitochondria is the structure where the cellular respiration process takes place and ATP is produced, the main source of energy that allows the different processes in the cell to be carried out.
In the rough endoplasmic reticulum, named for the presence of ribosomes, proteins are synthesized. While in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum lipid synthesis occurs. From here, these molecules pass to the Golgi apparatus, where they are packaged and take the final form of processing.
The nucleus of the cell is floating in the cytoplasm, and can occupy up to 10 percent of the cell space. It is composed of the nuclear envelope that encapsulates the nucleoplasm, a nuclear fluid where chromatin (DNA condensed with proteins) and the nucleolus float.
In the nucleus is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a molecule that contains genetic information and that is transmitted when cells divide.
DNA is the basis of heredity. Inside the nucleus, DNA binds to proteins (called histones) and coils and compacts to form chromosomes.