Meaning of animal and plant cell

What are animal and plant cells:

Both the animal cell and the plant cell are eukaryotic cells, this means that they have a nucleus defined in a nuclear envelope and contain in it a more complex DNA.

Animal cell

The animal cell is eukaryotic, with a defined nucleus and complex DNA. The animal kingdom is made up of multicellular beings, that is, each being contains several cells.

The animal cell is characterized by being the smallest unit that performs all the necessary functions to maintain the proper biological functioning of the organism.

Parts of the animal cell

The animal cell has a nucleus that contains the nucleolus, the place where ribosomes are generated, and most of the genetic material in the form of chromosomes.

Outside the nucleus of an animal cell and inside the plasma membrane is the cytosol, filled with cytoplasm. In the cytosol is the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) surrounding the nucleus filled with ribosomes. Also in the cytosol we can observe cytoskeletons, lysosomes, the Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, peroxisome and other ribosomes.

Depending on the type of cell, the division of animal cells can occur through mitosis or meiosis.

See also Characteristics of the animal cell.

Plant cell

The plant cell is eukaryotic, that is, it has a well-defined cell nucleus. The plant cell is part of the organisms that make up the kingdom plantae, the main characteristic being the ability to make its own food.

Parts of the plant cell

The plant cell differs from other eukaryotic cells by having a cell wall that surrounds the plasma membrane. This wall is made of cellulose and maintains the rectangular or cubic shape of the cell. In addition, the organelle called chloroplasts, transforms the energy of sunlight into chemical energy known as photosynthesis.

See also Characteristics of the plant cell.

Similarities between animal and plant cells

The animal and plant cells resemble each other because they are both eukaryotic. This means that they have a defined core. The nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear envelope inside which they contain:

  • Nucleolus, which is the place where ribosomes are produced.
  • Chromatins, which is a concentration of DNA chromosomes with genetic information.

In addition to the nucleus, the parts that the animal and plant cell have in common are:

  • Cell or plasma membrane
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Lysosomes (only in simple plant cells)
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Mitochondria
  • Cytoplasm
  • Peroxisome
  • Ribosomes

Differences between animal and plant cell

The animal and plant cells differ in some structures and in the way cell division occurs in them.

Animal cells, unlike plant cells, contain centrioles that help form cilia and flagella. In addition, they have a much smaller vacuole than the vegetable one. The form of cell division is also different, that of the animal cell consists of a constriction through mitosis or meiosis.

On the other hand, plant cells differ from animal cells by containing the following organelles and components:

Chloroplasts, which transform light energy into chemical energy in the process known as photosynthesis. Chloroplasts contain flattened sacs called thylakoids, a fluid called the stroma, and their own DNA.

Vacuole, whose size is much larger than that of the animal cell, and can occupy up to 90% of the space in the cytoplasm. The growth of the vacuole is the main growth mechanism of the plant and stores nutrients and waste products. In the animal cell, it is the lysosomes that have the function of recycling waste structures.

Cell wall, which surrounds the plasma membrane maintaining the rectangular or cubic shape of the cell. It is made up of cellulose, proteins, polysaccharides and channels that connect with the cytoplasm of adjacent cells called plasmodesmata.

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