Plant cell meaning
What is Plant Cell:
The plant cell is a type of eukaryotic cell that makes up the plant tissues in the organisms that make up the Kingdom Plantae.
The plant cell shares similarities with the animal cell. For example, both are eukaryotic cells, they have a differentiated nucleus, they contain hereditary genetic information (DNA), membrane and cytoplasm.
However, they differ because the plant cell has a function that allows it to carry out photosynthesis, a chemical process through which plants synthesize organic substances using light energy, and then release oxygen.
Characteristics of plant cells
Plant cells have various characteristics, among which the following can be mentioned:
- The immature plant cell has several vacuoles that, as they grow, coalesce and become one large vacuole.
- They have a central vacuole that allows the movement of molecules and stores fluids.
- They have a cell wall with pores outside the cell membrane, which provides support and allows communication with nearby cells.
- These cells contain chloroplasts that allow photosynthesis and have chlorophyll, which gives plants their green color.
See also Characteristics of the plant cell.
Plant cell types
There are three types of plant cells, including:
Parenchyma cell: they are transfer cells. They store and transport the nutrients that are generated from photosynthesis.
Collenchymal cells: they form growing cells and have a primary wall. They also provide flexibility to plant stems.
Sclerenchyma cells: they are support and support cells for the movements of the stems and leaves of plants.
See also Kingdom plantae.
Parts of the plant cell
Plant cells are composed of various unique organelles and others that even resemble or are the same as those of other eukaryotic cells.
Cell wall: it is a layer composed of cellulose that shapes the cell and protects the plasma membrane. It has a primary wall and a secondary wall.
Cytoplasm: it is a matter that is found between the plasma membrane and the nucleus, hence the cytoplasm is composed of cytosol and other organelles of the cell.
Plasmodesmus: set of channels found in the cell wall, keep the different cells of a plant interconnected and allow the exchange of proteins.
Vacuole: it is a large cellular organelle that is surrounded by a plasma membrane called the tonoplast that contains different fluids. Vacuoles allow plants to remain rigid.
Plastos: they produce and store the chemical compounds necessary for the process of photosynthesis, synthesis of lipids and amino acids.
There are two types of plasts according to their structure, the primary ones are found in a large number of plants and algae; the secondary ones are more complex and are part of the plankton.
Chloroplasts: they are characteristic organelles of eukaryotic cells that are responsible for photosynthesis. These convert light energy into chemical energy. In addition, they contain a green substance called chlorophyll that gives plants that pigment.
Leukoplasts: they are the plastids in charge of storing colorless substances. Convert glucose into protein or fat.
Chromoplasts: they are a type of plast that stores the colors of some flowers and fruits.
Golgi apparatus: set of dichthyosomes, flattened sacs organized one above the other. Its function is to produce, store and distribute substances.
Ribosomes: organelles responsible for synthesizing proteins.
Endoplasmic reticulum: membranes distributed in the cytoplasm that surround the nucleus. There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum, smooth and rough. Substances that participate in the synthesis of proteins and lipids are transported through these membranes.
Mitochondria: large organelles wrapped in membranes, where cellular respiration takes place through which ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is produced.
Cell membrane: it is a thin bilayer of lipids and proteins that surrounds the cell. On its surface it has tiny pores through which it exchanges substances with the outside.
Cell nucleus: it is located in the center of the cell and has a large part of the genetic content in the form of DNA. The nucleus is the control center for everything that happens in the cell.