Meaning of Colonization

What is Colonization:

Colonization is called the action and effect of colonizing. As such, it supposes the establishment of a colony by a country in a foreign territory or far from its borders.

It can also refer to the establishment of a group of people in a territory other than that of their origin in order to populate it, if it was not previously inhabited, or repopulate it, if it had been previously.

Colonization is also a term used by biogeography to describe the relationship of population or occupation of a space by a group of living beings, which can be both animals, plants or microorganisms, which come to populate a place in which before no they were.

See also Cologne.

Colonization in history

Colonization, in history, refers to all that historical fact or process in which a foreign State, usually an economic and military power that we will call a metropolis, occupies a foreign territory, which we will call a colony, away from its borders with the purpose to exploit its economic resources and dominate it politically, militarily and culturally.

As such, colonization can develop violently, when it implies the subjugation by force of the local population, or peacefully, when the inhabitants do not offer any resistance or when there are, in fact, no inhabitants in the area.

In the colonization processes, characteristic social dynamics are created according to which the dominance of a colonial caste, originating from the metropolis, is established over the indigenous population of the colony, the former enjoying a series of political and social privileges over and above the second.

See also:

  • Decolonization.
  • Indigenous.

Colonization in America

The colonization of America by Europeans began at the end of the 15th century, with the arrival of Christopher Columbus, under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs, in 1492, to the American continent.

The American colonization by Europe meant the political and military domination of the subject territories, as well as the exploitation of economic resources and the establishment of a supposed cultural superiority, according to which the Europeans claimed the right to subdue the indigenous inhabitants. of the continent.

The two European powers that would be at the beginning of the colonization process would be the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire, which were followed, from the seventeenth century, by the British Empire, France and the Netherlands. Currently, only Spain and Portugal do not maintain American colonial possessions, unlike other powers, such as the United Kingdom, France and the Netherlands.

See also Colonialism.

Spanish colonization

The colonization by the Spanish Crown over a large part of the territory that makes up America was a historical process that consisted in the implantation and establishment of the political, administrative, economic, military and cultural dominion of the Spanish Empire in American lands.

As such, it was fundamentally an act of force through which the Spanish subdued the indigenous inhabitants of each of the regions, from North America, through Central America and the Caribbean, to South America, with the excuse of evangelizing them.

Spanish colonization as a historical period begins on October 12, 1492, with the arrival of Christopher Columbus in America, and lasts until August 13, 1898, the day on which Spain loses its last American possessions at the hands of the United States. .

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