Meaning of Chemical Concentration

What is Chemical Concentration:

Chemical concentration determines the ratio of solute and solvent in a chemical solution.

The chemical concentration is the amount in which the substances that dissolve (solute) are found in relation to the substance or substances that dissolve it (solvent). In this sense, the amount of solute will always be less than the solvent for it to be considered a solution.

See also Solute and solvent.

The preparation of a chemical solution requires calculating the measurements of solute and solvent that will determine the concentration of the solution and the type of solution.

See also:

  • Chemical solution
  • Concentration

The concentrations of the solutions are expressed by molarity, molality or mole fraction.

Chemical concentration measurements

Measurements of concentration of chemical solutions are determined by physical units and chemical units of concentration:

The physical units are those that define the proportion between the solute and the solvent in mass, volume or its parts.

Chemical units, on the other hand, define the concentration of the solution by moles or chemical equivalents that the solvent presents.

Physical units of concentration of solutions

The physical units of concentration of solutions express the proportion of solute in weight, volume or parts in relation to the amount of solvent. The exercises to calculate the percentage by mass or weight, that is, its concentration expressed in these measurements, the solute measurements are divided by the solvent and then multiplied by 100.

The physical measurements of chemical concentrations and their formulas are as follows:

Weight over weight

Weight over weight (% w / w), or also mass over mass (m / m) expresses the percentage of weight or mass of solute in relation to the weight or mass of solution:

Volume on volume

Volume by volume (% v / v) indicates the proportion of the volume of the solute in the total volume of the solution:

Weight over volume

Weight over volume (% w / v) represents the weight of the solute in relation to the volume of the solution:

Parts per million

Parts per million (ppm) calculates milligrams of solute in kilograms of solution:

Chemical units of concentration of solutions

Chemical units of solution concentration calculate the number of moles or chemical equivalents of a solute in a solvent. The chemical concentration measurements and their respective formulas are:

Molarity (g / L)

Molarity is the number of moles of solute in liters of solution. A mole is a number of carbon atoms expressed in Avogadro's constant. To determine the number of moles or molar mass of an element, simply consult a periodic table. The number below the element's chemical symbol and is also known as the atomic mass.

See also Periodic table.

To calculate the molarity of a solution the following formula should be used:

To determine the number of moles of a solute, the mass of the solute must be calculated through the following formula:

In this case, the molar mass is calculated by multiplying the atomic mass of each element by the number of atoms indicated in the formula and then adding the result of each element.

For example, to calculate the molar mass of 100 grams of ammonia (NH3) as solute, first determine the molar mass of ammonia by adding the atomic masses of nitrogen (1.008) with the three hydrogen atoms (3 * 14.01) obtaining 43.038 g / mol. Then divide the grams by the molar mass: 100 / 43.038 = 2.323 moles in 100 grams of ammonia.

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