Meaning of Knowledge
What is Knowledge:
Knowledge is the action and effect of knowing, that is, of acquiring valuable information to understand reality through reason, understanding and intelligence. It refers, then, to what results from a learning process.
Knowledge can be referred to in various ways. In its most general sense, the word knowledge refers to the accumulated information on a certain topic or subject. In a more specific sense, knowledge is defined as the set of abilities, skills, mental processes and information acquired by the individual, whose function is to help him interpret reality, solve problems and direct his behavior.
The word knowledge comes from Latin I will know, formed by the prefix with, which means "all" or "together", and the word gnoscere.
As a phenomenon, knowledge has been studied since Classical Antiquity, and it is an important area within philosophical, psychological and scientific studies in general.
Characteristics and properties of knowledge
- Knowledge is always cultural, that is, it shapes culture.
- Knowledge is usually capable of being expressed and transmitted through language.
- In this sense, knowledge is codified, that is, it requires a code or language for its communication.
- It guides the thinking, behavior and decision-making processes of human beings.
- It is a complex phenomenon determined by biological, psychological and social variables.
How is knowledge acquired?
Knowledge is built from early childhood and accompanies the development process of the person, influencing their behavior and ability to solve problems. Knowledge originates through sensory perception, from where it reaches understanding, and from there it passes to the rational process of analysis and information coding.
We must say, however, that the process of construction of knowledge is extremely complex and attends to many variables, which is why there are various schools dedicated to the formulation of a theory of knowledge. Some of the authors who have studied this phenomenon in our era are Jean Piaget, through his theory of cognitive development, and Lev Vygotsky, through his sociocultural theory.
It is recognized that, on a general reading, the following elementary pathways to acquiring knowledge can be recognized. Let's see.
- Authority: authority figures are an element for the transmission of knowledge, since they generate a vote of confidence in the social group. It applies from parents to children, from teachers to students, or from specialists in front of a curious audience.
- Tradition: knowledge is transmitted from generation to generation, and in this way it is consolidated in tradition. Thus, individuals of a certain social group acquire knowledge through traditional social practices.
- Intuition: it is a type of immediate understanding about an emerging issue, which allows you to decide appropriately.
- Experience: as the subject gains experience, records and learns new information that allows him to face similar situations in the future.
- Scientific research: the exercise of procuring information in a systematic, structured and methodical way, that is, from a scientific method, is a way of acquiring knowledge.
- Sociocultural theory.
Types of knowledge
In general terms, it can be said that there are two main types of knowledge: knowledge a priori and knowledge a posteriori.
- Knowledge a priori: knowledge can be a priori when it is based on the process of personal reason or introspection to be formulated, without being verified in experience.
- Knowledge a posteriori: we speak of a posteriori knowledge when it arises from an experience, and that same experience becomes a validation of learning.
However, you can also talk about other types of knowledge according to the learning method or area of knowledge. Let's look at some cases.
Philosophical knowledge is obtained through speculative reflection on reality and dialogue, and is aimed at understanding the being and being of the subject. It can be said that it is rational, analytical, totalizing, critical and historical.
Empirical knowledge is that which is obtained through one's own and palpable experience, although it does not imply a method of study but rather awareness of the order of what has been lived or experienced. Although it arises from concrete experience, it is modified by the subject's universe of cultural values.
Scientific knowledge is that which is acquired through the planned design of an investigation, which implies a systematic and methodical process. Scientific knowledge is verifiable and demonstrable. At the same time it pretends to be critical, rational, universal and objective.
Theological knowledge is based on the acceptance of a set of values and beliefs derived from a spiritual revelation. In this sense, it has a symbolic character, since in it processes of construction of meanings operate through symbols.