Philosophical currents

The philosophical currents are the different groups of philosophers that meet and define according to the common characteristics and shared opinions on philosophy.

The philosophical currents have been formed with the purpose of sharing and discussing various logical reasoning and methods on abstract concepts related to humanity and the context that surrounds us.

For this reason, each one of the philosophical currents that exists responds to a time, a historical fact or arises from the need to express opposition or opposition to a particular logic.

See also Philosophy.

The 11 most important philosophical currents

1. Idealism

Idealism is a current that is characterized by interpreting the world as something dual, in this way ideas are accessed through knowledge and sensitivity. Idealism maintains that reality is subjective, that is, it is based on the form or idea. Idealism is opposed to realism.

Other ramifications have emerged from this current, such as objective Idealism, Subjective Idealism and Transcendental Idealism.

Plato is considered the father of idealism and was followed by Descarte, Hegel, Fichte, Kant.

See also Idealism.

2. Realism

Realism is a philosophical current whose position is to recognize that reality is perceived through experience in order to be understood in itself. Aristotle and Saint Thomas Aquinas were its main exponents.

That is, the truth is reality as it is, that is why it is made up of universal forms that are recognized by all individuals. Objects have an existence independent of being.

This philosophical current is opposed to idealism.

See also Realism.

3. Skepticism

Skepticism is a philosophical current that defends that what is important is the happiness of the spirit, inner peace. Therefore, it exposes that one should not pretend to achieve absolute knowledge, since neither reason nor the senses are reliable.

That is, the individual should not stick to any opinion, especially because they change over time.

The founder of skepticism was Pyrrho of Elis, together with his followers, around the 3rd century BC.

4. Dogmatism

Dogmatism is a current that assumes the possibility and reality of contact between subject and object. In this current, knowledge is the ability of the individual to interpret reality.

Its main exponent was Thales of Mileto.

See also Greek Philosophy.

5. Rationalism

Rationalism is a philosophical current that highlights reason as the source of knowledge, while it is opposed to empiricism. That is, individuals possess knowledge and ideas prior to and independent of experience.

René Descartes was the main exponent of rationalism in the seventeenth century. However, in ancient Greece Plato already mentioned this, and later did Saint Augustine, Leibniz, Hegel, among others.

See also Rationalism.

6. Empiricism

Empiricism is the philosophical current that is opposed to rationalism. It is based on the fact that knowledge and the formation of ideas are based, justified and sustained by sensible experience. That is, experience is the basis of all knowledge.

Empiricism appears in the Modern Age, between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and its main exponents were John Locke and David Hume.

7. Criticism

It is known as criticism to the theory of knowledge proposed by Emmanuel Kant, which consists of investigating where the limits of knowledge are. Kant's proposal is based on the fact that when knowledge is generated, it brings knowledge or elements that are prior to the result of the investigation.

It is a theory that proposes to study the previous forms of knowledge that have made new knowledge possible. That is, it seeks an answer to the way in which a final knowledge is reached.

See also Criticism.

8. Positivism

Positivism is a philosophical current proposed by the thinker Augusto Comte and John Stuart Mill at the beginning of the 19th century. That of positivism is based on the idea of ​​focusing on objective science and the laws of research.

For positivists, authentic knowledge is obtained through scientific knowledge that, in turn, arises from the theories of the scientific method, on which philosophical and scientific activities must be analyzed, starting from real facts.

See also Positivism.

9. Pragmatism

Pragmatism is a philosophical movement that originated and developed between the United States and England. Its main exponents were William James and John Dewey.

It consists in reducing the true to the useful, that is, the truth consists in the congruence of thoughts with practical ends for the individual. The truth must be useful, therefore all knowledge is practical if it fulfills a function.

See also Pragmatism.

10. Marxism

Marxism is a set of theories, ideas and concepts that have an ideological, political and economic background that derives from the proposals and doctrines formulated by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

Therefore, it is a philosophical current that has been used on the basis of ideologies such as communism and socialism.

See also Marxism.

11. Existentialism

Existentialism refers to existence as something comparable to reality. It is one of the most important philosophical currents of the 20th century, its exponents were Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus, among others.

For existentialists the existence of life precedes its essence. This current seeks the metaphysical meaning of the human being.

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