Meaning of Criminalistics
What is Criminalistics:
Criminalistics is a discipline of Criminal Law that is responsible for demonstrating and explaining a crime, determining its authors and their participation, through a set of procedures, techniques and scientific knowledge.
By means of criminology, the events that occurred are recreated and what happened in a crime committed by one or more people is scientifically demonstrated.
Criminalistic activity comprises detailed activities and procedures to demonstrate and recreate correctly and effectively the events that occurred, using the instruments and weapons used in the event and, always based on scientific knowledge and techniques to identify the perpetrators of the crime.
The criminological techniques are verifiable, which gives a large percentage of certainty that what was demonstrated was what really happened, that is, it is the truth of the facts proven through scientific knowledge.
The search for the truth in a criminal act is based on a set of basic and fundamental principles that govern criminology, including:
- The preservation of the place of the act or crime committed.
- Thorough observation of the place of events, as well as its fixation.
- The collection of all the evidence found continues, which are sent to the laboratory for analysis.
- Finally, the chain of custody of the evidence and evidence found.
See also Crime.
Criminalistics and Criminology
Criminalistics and criminology are two different terms. However, there are many confusions in relation to these terms due to the little or absolute lack of information and comparison of them.
Criminology is the science that is responsible for the study of the criminal phenomenon, that is, it analyzes the reasons for what happened, as well as the subjects who carry it out in order to find and determine the explanation of the causes of the fact and arrest the victims. criminals.
On the other hand, criminology seeks to demonstrate how the crime was committed, determines the victim's data, looks for the perpetrator or perpetrators of the event, and always checks the facts and actions through scientific knowledge.
As you can see, there is a huge and wide difference between the two concepts, since criminology deals with the study of crime and why, while criminology with its demonstration, who committed the crime and how.
See also Crime.
Criminal Investigation Method
The criminal investigation method is the set of disciplines that serve to reconstruct the facts of a crime, as well as to identify its authors and instruments or weapons used at the scene, among these we can highlight the following:
- Fingerprints: it is responsible for the study of fingerprints.
- Forensic art: it deals with the spoken portrait based on the memory of the victim.
- Forensic ballistics: it is responsible for the study of cartridges, bullets, ammunition, weapons and the trajectory of the projectile.
- Documentoscopía: refers to the study of documents immersed in an investigation of a criminal act.
- Forensic photography: it is the taking of photographs of the place of the events and that allows the subsequent recreation of the same, as well as the evidence and indications found there
- Forensic genetics: analysis of the tests or samples of blood, saliva, secretions, semen, among others, found at the scene of the events.
- Forensic dentistry: it is the dental analysis of the victim, suspects or perpetrators of the crime.
- Forensic toxicology: in charge of studying the toxic substances that are found in victims or at the scene of the event. It is carried out to those involved in the events, whether they are alive or deceased.
- Forensic graphology: studies the writings found in the documents involved in the investigation.
- Forensic anthropology: determines the sex, height, age and other physical characteristics of the perpetrator of the crime.
- Computer forensics: analyzes all documents and computer systems.
- Forensic medicine: it is understood as the laboratory where all the clues, indications and evidence obtained from a crime are analyzed.
- Forensic pathology: deals with the possible cause of death of an individual.
History of criminology
Fingerprinting was the first auxiliary precursor discipline of criminology, approximately in the seventeenth century, when doctors took part in the judicial processes and analyzed the fingerprints of the detainees.
After this antecedent, legal medicine started by Ambrosio Paré and developed by Paolo Sacchias in 1651 later developed, in 1575.
Then, years later, the famous French criminal Eugène François Vidocq, after being included in the ranks of his country's government in 1809, is credited with the first ballistics studies.
However, one of the most important criminalists in history was Hans Groos (1847-1915), considered the father of the systematic analysis of the traces left by the criminal in the place where the crime was committed.
Groos drew up the Judge's Manual as a Criminalistics System, and in 1912 he founded the Criminological School of Graz, where he worked as a teacher and at the same time as a Criminal Judge.
In the same vein, in Mexico, in 1904, Professor Carlos Roumagnac developed one of the first foundations of Criminal Anthropology. Years later, in 1920, Professor Benjamín Martínez founded the Identity Cabinet and the Criminalistics Laboratory of the then Police Headquarters of the Federal District in Mexico City.
In 1928, Frenchman Edmon Locard unveiled the Locard Exchange Principle, which has allowed the analysis of immense evidence in the transmission of materials from one object to another, which have favored the resolution of countless crimes.
Field criminology is one that is responsible for studying, describing and fixing, in a meticulous way, the place where the crime or discovery occurred.
On the other hand, this branch of criminology is in charge of collecting and collecting all those objects that are considered indications or evidences of what happened.