Meaning of Social Issue
What is Social Issue:
The set of problems of a social nature that arose as a consequence of the industrial revolution and the changes it brought about in economic and social relations between individuals is known as a social issue.
The social question arises in the context of the industrial revolution in the 19th century. The series of changes that this entailed in relation to production methods (scientific advances, new technologies, etc.), also brought profound alterations in life in society.
Consider that before the industrial revolution the economy was fundamentally rural, and was based mainly on agriculture, livestock, trade and manual production. However, with the arrival of the revolution, it was transformed into an urban, industrialized and mechanized economy.
See also Industrial Revolution.
Along with this situation, there was the rise of the bourgeoisie, owner of capital and the means of production, and the appearance of a new class: the working class, who migrated from the countryside to the city to lend their workforce to change of a salary.
In this context of accelerated changes in the social fabric, a series of inequalities and imbalances are produced that will have social, labor and ideological consequences. The bourgeoisie, privileged by the changes, will benefit from the new order, while the working class will suffer innumerable injustices (exploitation, poverty, precarious working and health conditions, etc.).
Seen in the light of Marxism, the social question originates as a product of unequal exchanges between a ruling class, owner of the means of production (the bourgeoisie), and an exploited class (the proletariat), and this solution could only be carried out through a revolution of the proletariat.
See also Marxism.
However, in liberal systems, since the social question cannot be properly resolved, it demands the intervention of the State through its institutions to balance the justice situation of the working class. And in this sense, he found different answers and expressions in the fields of politics, ideology and religion.
On the political level, the political measures of Bismarck in the German Empire, the new liberalism in the United Kingdom, and solidarity in France stand out. On the ideological level, for its part, we can point to the emergence of communism, socialism and anarchism. The Church, on the other hand, as a response to the social question, developed what became known as social Catholicism, which would later lead to social Christianity.
See also Question.
The social question, then, arises as an expression of the change from one era and from one economic system to another, in which new forms of inequality and conflict occur in societies, and supposes the birth of a new consciousness in relation to the economic and social relations product of the new era.
In fact, throughout time, the societies of the world have been faced with the social question when profound changes take place in their economic system, which in turn lead to important alterations in social relations. In Chile and Argentina, for example, this occurred between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, while in Mexico the social question would become more acute at the beginning of the twentieth century, leading to the Mexican revolution.