Meaning of Dissolution
What is Dissolution:
A solution is the homogeneous mixture of two or more components that do not react with each other and that are in variable proportions.
Solutions have two elements: a solvent or solvent, which is in which the solute will dissolve, and which is generally present in a higher proportion. For its part, the solute is the compound that will dissolve in the mixture.
The term dissolution comes from the Latin dissolutĭo, which refers to the action and effect of dissolving.
Dissolution also refers to the breaking of ties or the excessive relaxation of norms or customs.
Characteristics of a solution
Generally speaking, a solution has some distinctive characteristics:
- It has a solute and a solvent.
- In a solution, the components cannot be separated by centrifugation or filtration. Instead, crystallization and distillation would make it possible to obtain them.
- When the solute dissolves, it becomes part of the solvent. For example, when sugar dissolves in water, it becomes part of the mix.
- In a solution, the total volume is different than the sum of the volumes of its components. This happens because they are not additives.
- The proportions of solutes and solvents will remain the same.
- The proportions of solute and solvent are variable, but within certain limits, that the mixture between the components depends on their solubility (amount of solute that can be mixed with the solvent). For example, a spoon of sugar can be dissolved in a glass of water, but the same will not happen if we add a kilo of sugar to the same amount of water.
- By adding a solute to a solvent, the original characteristics of the second are modified: its vapor pressure decreases, its freezing point, and its boiling point increases.
- In a solution, the chemical characteristics of its components.
- Solute and solvent
- Chemical concentration
Types of dissolution
Solutions are classified according to their state of aggregation and their concentration. In both cases, there are several sub-classifications:
Solutions according to their state of aggregation:
- Solid to solid: the most common example is alloys (combinations of two or more metallic elements), such as copper and zinc, which result in brass.
- Solid gas - solid: hydrogen dissolved in palladium (used as a storage form of hydrogen).
- Liquid in solid: liquid mercury mixed with silver (used in the dental area to make amalgams).
- Liquid in liquid: alcohol in water.
- Solid in liquid: water with sugar.
- Gas in liquid: carbonated drinks.
- Gas in gas: butane (a form of fuel) dissolved in air.
- Solid in gas: naphthalene sublimated in air.
- Liquid in gas: aerosol products.
Solutions according to their concentration
In this case, the mixtures are evaluated qualitatively or quantitatively.
In this case, the quality of the solvent and solute is assessed. They are sub-classified as follows:
- Diluted solution: the amount of solute is minimal in proportion to the solvent (sugar diluted in coffee).
- Concentrated solution: the amount of solute is considerable with respect to the solvent (sea water).
- Saturated solution: the solute and the solvent are balanced. Carbonated drinks have a balanced ratio of carbon dioxide to water.
- Supersaturated solution: the amount of solute is greater than that which can be mixed with the solvent. Syrups and candies have a supersaturation of sugar in a liquid solvent.
In this type of solutions, the quantity of the components is considered very precisely. This measurement can be made in percentage of mass, moles (mol), volume (cubic centimeters), grams per liter (g / L). They are subclassified into three groups:
- Ionic titrated solutions: solute and solvent form ionic bonds with positive (cation) and negative (anion) charge.
- Elemental value solutions: its components are in their pure state.
- Formulated titrated solutions: in this case, the atomic weight of the components is considered.
See also Chemical solution