40 examples of inductive and deductive arguments

Inductive and deductive arguments are two types of reasoning that allow us to reach conclusions from a premise.

The premises of inductive arguments identify repeated patterns in a sample of a population, and from there general conclusions are inferred for the entire population. Such conclusions are always considered probable.

In deductive arguments, on the other hand, the premises from which we start are general principles, from which conclusions about specific cases are inferred. Unlike the inductive, the conclusions of the deductive argument are always considered valid. Next, we offer a list with a total of 40 examples, distributed in 20 inductive arguments and 20 deductive arguments.

Examples of inductive arguments

1.
The grouper is a fish, it has scales and breathes through its gills.
The sardine is a fish, it has scales and breathes through its gills.
The shark is a fish, it has scales and breathes through its gills.
Probably all fish have scales and breathe through their gills.

2.
The snake is a reptile and has no hair.
The alligator is a reptile and has no hair.
The turtle is a reptile and has no hair.
Probably no reptile has hair.

3.
German fascism had a strong racist component.
Italian fascism had a strong racist component.
Probably all fascist governments have been racist.

4.
Claudia is a woman and has a knack for mathematics.
Estefanía is a woman and has a knack for mathematics.
María is a woman and has a knack for mathematics.
Probably all women have a knack for mathematics.

5.
The bolero “Somos novios” speaks of love.
The bolero “Perfidia” speaks of love.
The bolero "Sabor a me" speaks of love.
Probably all boleros speak of love.

6.
Mars, Earth, and Neptune revolve around the Sun and are spheroids.
Probably all the planets revolve around the Sun and are spheroids.

7.
My parrot imitates the sounds it hears.
The neighbor's parrot imitates the sounds it hears.
Probably all parrots imitate the sounds they hear.

8.
The Baldachin of San Pedro and the Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane belong to the Italian Baroque and their decoration is very profuse.
Probably, the Italian Baroque is characterized by the use of profuse decoration.

9.
Two times zero equals zero (2 x 0 = 0).
Thirty-seven times zero equals zero (37 x 0 = 0).
Five hundred and ninety-three times zero equals zero (593 x 0 = 0).
So all the numbers multiplied by zero result in zero.

10.
Fish are animals and they need oxygen to live.
Mammals are animals and they need oxygen to live.
Birds are animals and they need oxygen to live.
All animals probably need oxygen.

11.
Milk went up in price.
Dairy contains milk.
All dairy products probably increased in price.

12.
Neurons are cells and they have cytoplasm.
Eggs are cells and have cytoplasm.
Bacteria are cells and they have cytoplasm.
All cells probably have cytoplasm.

13.
Maria is a student and has books.
Emiliani is a student and has books.
Jason is a student and has books.
All students have books.

14.
The goalkeeper earns minimum salary and this is not enough for his monthly expenses.
The cleaning lady earns minimum salary and it is not enough for her monthly expenses.
The driver earns minimum salary and this is not enough for his monthly expenses.
Probably, the minimum wage does not cover the essential expenses of the population.

15.
José Sousa is Portuguese and a hard worker.
Olga Brito is Portuguese and a hard worker.
Isabel Pereira is Portuguese and a hard worker.
Probably all Portuguese are workers.

16.
José is Venezuelan and has a very good sense of humor.
María is Venezuelan and has a very good sense of humor.
Probably all Venezuelans have a good sense of humor.

17.
José does not eat well and always gets sick.
Nuria does not eat well and always gets sick.
Antonio does not eat well and always gets sick.
Poor diet probably weakens the immune system.

18.
María, Amanda and Lucía are feminist leaders and they fight to eliminate violence against women.
Probably all feminists fight to eliminate violence against women.

19.
Yesterday during the storm, thunder was heard after the lightning strike.
Today during the storm, thunder was heard after the lightning.
Lightning is probably the cause of thunder.

20.
The recycling program at the Esperanza School in the La Paz municipality was a success.
The recycling program at the Escuela Moral y Luces in the municipality of La Paz was a success.
The recycling program at the Futuro School in the La Paz municipality was a success.
Probably, all the recycling programs of the schools of the La Paz municipality will be successful.

You can delve into the subject in: Inductive reasoning

Examples of deductive arguments

1.
All men are mortal.
Socrates is a man.
So Socrates is mortal. (Aristotle)

2.
All the planets describe elliptical orbits around the sun.
Earth is a planet.
The orbit of the Earth around the sun is elliptical.

3.
All mammals have lungs.
The dolphin is a mammal.
The dolphin has lungs.

4.
All living things breathe, reproduce and die.
Water does not breathe, it does not reproduce or die.
Water is not a living being.

5.
All the roosters crow at dawn.
My pet is a rooster.
My rooster crows at dawn.

6.
Organic compounds are made up mainly of carbon and hydrogen.
The salt contains sodium chloride (NaCl) and does not contain hydrogen or carbon.
Salt is not an organic compound.

7.
All Renaissance paintings are applied chiaroscuro.
This painting is from the Renaissance.
In this painting chiaroscuro is applied.

8.
The requirement to apply for the position is to have a Bachelor's degree in Education.
Alberto Martínez does not have a degree in Education.
Alberto Martínez cannot run.

9.
All the people who go to Mass regularly are Catholic.
Pedro attends mass regularly.
Pedro is a Catholic.

10.
Every number raised to the exponent of one is equal to itself.
Eight is raised to one.
Eight equals itself (81 = 8).

11.
Bacteria reproduce asexually.
Pneumococcus is a bacteria.
The pneumococcal bacteria reproduce asexually.

12.
If the faucet is leaking, it is because it was damaged.
The faucet is leaking.
The faucet was damaged.

13.
Foods with vitamin C support the immune system.
Guava contains vitamin C.
Guava supports the immune system.

14.
Deserts are extremely hot during the day.
The Médanos de Coro in Venezuela are a desert.
In the Médanos de Coro it is extremely hot during the day.

15.
In dictatorships there is no freedom of expression.
In North Korea there is no freedom of expression.
In North Korea there is a dictatorship.

16.
In the Jewish religion it is obligatory to circumcise males on the eighth day of birth.
Gabriel is already an adult and is not circumcised.
Gabriel is not Jewish.

17.
All applicants to music school must have an ear for melodic and rhythmicity.
Miguel Mendoza has a melodic and rhythmic ear.
Miguel Mendoza will be admitted.

18.
Spanish is spoken in Colombia.
María Restrepo is Colombian by birth and upbringing.
María Restrepo speaks Spanish.

19.
Eukaryotic cells have a defined nucleus.
Neurons have a defined nucleus.
Neurons are eukaryotic cells.

20.
The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti transmit dengue.
Miriam Tortoledo has dengue.
Miriam Tortoledo was bitten by a mosquito Aedes aegypti.

It may interest you:

  • Argument
  • Deductive reasoning
  • Abductive argument
  • Argument types

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