Meaning of Colonial Period
What is Colonial Epoch:
The expression "colonial period" is a historical periodization that designates the stage of occupation, settlement, establishment, administration and control of a territory in the hands of a group of foreign or foreign settlers. It is directly related to the historical process of colonization.
This expression is made up of the words epoch ("period) and colonial (" relative to the colony "). In turn, the term" colony "means" territory governed or established by foreign people ". These people are called" " colonists ", a word that originally means" farmers ".
In its basic definition, colonization implies the occupation of a territory by a human group that provides conditions for the development of a new civilization or for its expansion. The word itself does not contemplate the prior presence or interference of another civilization in that territory.
Therefore, this term and its derivatives are often controversial when applied to invasion scenarios.
Colonial times in history
Colonial times have accompanied the history of humanity forever. Among the best known of the Ancient Age we can mention the colonial stages of the Phoenician, Greek and Roman civilizations.
In the European Middle Ages there were many and diverse colonization processes, of which the Arab expansion in the Iberian Peninsula is one of the most outstanding examples.
Regarding modern history, the expression colonial era identifies the periods of invasion and domination of European civilization over non-European territories, a process that had a decisive impact on the history of those regions. There is talk then of a colonial time in America, as well as in different countries of Asia, Oceania and Africa.
Colonial times in America
The colonial period or epoch of America ranges from the 16th century, shortly after the discovery, to the 18th and 19th centuries, with the independence processes.
Among the dominant groups were mainly the Spanish and Portuguese, who settled in Central and South America, and the British, who settled in North America. They were followed by the French, Dutch, Germans, Italians, Danes, Swedes, Norwegians, Scots, Russians, Curlanders, and the order of the Hospitallers.
Colonial times in Oceania
The colonial period of Oceania spans from the 16th century, when voyages of exploration on the continent began, until the early 20th century. Spain was the first country to occupy the region, establishing its dominions in the Philippines. From the 18th century the English established a colonial government in Australia. France also had the colonial rule of different islands on the continent.
Colonial times in Africa and Asia
The colonization of Africa and Asia also began with the development of the maritime routes towards the 15th and 16th centuries, but acquired very different characteristics from the 19th century after the appearance of industrialization.
From the 19th century, after losing the American territories, Europe will rethink the concept of colonization towards an indirect model, in order to expand its markets and search for raw materials. Thus the modern forms of colonialism and imperialism are born.
See also Imperialism.
Art and culture in colonial times
Within the studies of art history, the term "colonial period" is also used to group the set of cultural goods produced during foreign domination. It can also be called colonial art or culture.
In Latin America numerous artistic expressions arose in the fine arts, music and literature. It was a period characterized by the interweaving of Spanish and Portuguese aesthetic elements with the repertoire of indigenous and Afro-American forms, symbols, themes, and reinterpretations, of which the Spanish-American baroque is an example.
Likewise, there is talk of a colonial art from India with the influence of the English, French and Portuguese, who brought the current fashion trends in those countries to the region. These influences were also mixed with the presence of Hindu, Buddhist and Islamic art present from the periods before Western domination.