Meaning of Spores
What is spores:
The spores are the agents of reproduction (or only of the asexual phases) of the life cycle of the beings of the Fungi Kingdom, a large part of those of the Protista Kingdom (protozoa and algae) and some that belong to the Plantae Kingdom. In the kingdom monera (bacteria), however, the spores are not reproductive but are resistance agents called endospores.
In this sense, when speaking of spores, the Kingdom of nature in which the beings that produce them belong must be taken into consideration.
Types of spores
In general, we can consider 2 types of spores: the reproductive ones in fungi, some plants, protozoa and algae and those that are produced as a survival mechanism against hostile environments in the case of bacteria.
Spores in the fungi Kingdom
The spores in the organisms of the fungi Kingdom, usually fungi, have a reproductive function.
They are reproductive cells that do not need to "mate" with another cell to reproduce, therefore they are called asexual reproductive agents.
Reproduction by spores is characteristic of the Fungi Kingdom or of fungi. These release spores that travel through the air to places with favorable conditions for their reproduction. This is the case, for example, of molds.
Spores in the Monera Kingdom
Bacteria usually produce spores as a defense mechanism that can have beneficial properties for humans or, on the other hand, cause disease.
The bacteria belonging to the Monera Kingdom that generate spores are mostly Bacillus and Clostridium bacilli. The Bacillus clausii, for example, it is considered a probiotic that stimulates the intestinal tract in its latent phase.
On the other hand, some of the bacterial spores that cause disease in humans are, for example, the Cloustridium botulinum which causes bolutism, a common food poisoning in sausages and canned goods in poor condition.
Another toxic agent that affects humans and domestic animals is Bacillus anthracis which causes anthrax.
Spores and endospores
Bacterial spores do not have reproductive functions. They are in a dormant or dormant state for much of the bacterium's life cycle and only germinate during unfavorable periods. These bacterial spores are called endospores and are formed through a process called sporulation.
Sporulation is only triggered when there is a deficiency in the bacteria or an imminent environmental stress. Endospores resist high temperatures, radiation, and toxic chemicals.