What is Statistics:
Statistics is a science and a branch of mathematics through which a series of data is collected, analyzed, described and studied in order to establish comparisons or variabilities that allow understanding a particular phenomenon.
Statistics uses, to a large extent, observation to collect data that will later be analyzed and compared in order to obtain a result.
Likewise, statistics are used to study a population or sample about which it is intended to obtain particular information, in this way a solution to a problem can be offered or to see how a specific situation has changed.
It is a science that can be applied beyond science, since statistics is also applied in various studies in the areas of social sciences, health sciences, economics, business, and in various government-type studies.
The objective of statistics is both to offer a numerical result and to show how a specific situation is developing.
Hence, after a statistical analysis, it is possible to understand a fact, make decisions, study social problems, offer data and solutions in certain cases, deduce data in relation to a population, among others.
The term statistics derives from the German statistik, and this in turn from Latin statisticum collegium.
The main types of statistics applied in various studies are presented below.
Descriptive or deductive statistics allow the numerical data obtained after a particular study or analysis to be presented in a summarized and organized manner. Its objective, therefore, is to describe the main characteristics of the collected data and to avoid generalizations.
Inferential or inductive statistics is the study that uses techniques from which generalizations are obtained or decisions are made based on partial or complete information obtained through descriptive techniques.
Its objective is to draw useful conclusions on the total of possible observations based on the information obtained.
The applied statistics makes use of the methods set out above, and allows making inferences from one or several samples of a certain population as an object of study. In this way, both specific and generalized results can be offered.
Applied statistics is used in various sciences, such as history, economics, education, or sociology to carry out statistical studies and analysis.
It is the statistics that yields random and uncertain data, which is why it makes use of probability theory, a branch of mathematics that studies these cases.
Statistical probability is a way of measuring the certainty associated with the observation or occurrence of a phenomenon or the fact that a characteristic of an object of study takes on a certain value.It can be simplified by dividing the number of occurrences of an event by the total number of possible cases.