Meaning of liberal state

What is a liberal state:

A liberal State is called a certain configuration in the legal-political order of a State, characterized by aspects such as the separation of public powers, democracy, a free market economic system, unrestricted submission to the law and the constitution, existence of a rule of law, and respect for the individual freedoms of citizens and private property, among other things.

The liberal state arises as a consequence of the crisis of the absolutist political model, typical of monarchical regimes, which gave rise to the liberal revolution, through which the monarchical model, or old regime, was replaced by the liberal model or new regime.

In this sense, the liberal State is a characteristic political system of the beginning of the Contemporary Age, and, as such, it remains in force until our present time.

See also:

  • Liberalism.
  • Liberal.

Characteristics of the liberal state

The liberal State is characterized, politically, by the separation of powers, the absolute distinction between Church and State, and a democratic system of a multi-party nature with periodic elections that guarantee the alternation of power.

In legal terms, the liberal State is built on the principle of legality. In this sense, it offers the individual a rule of law, which guarantees their individual rights, the exercise of freedom, equality before the law, freedom of expression, among other things, all of which translates into legal security.

In the social sphere, the liberal State offers a theoretical equality of opportunities so that everyone can conquer their rightful place in society according to their merits, abilities or work, leaving behind the privileges of caste or lineage of the estate society.

Finally, economically, the liberal state is characterized by unrestricted respect for private property, the free market, and limited state intervention. This last aspect is particularly important, since the liberal State interferes as little as possible in the economic life of the country, on the contrary, its action is limited, hardly, to mediation in specific conflicts between individuals.

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