Meaning of Aesthetics
What is Aesthetics:
Esthetic It is the discipline that studies the nature of beauty and the perception of it by individuals, which is why it is closely related to art.
The word aesthetic derives from modern Latin aestheticus, and this one from Greek aisthētikós which means "perception or sensitivity" through the senses.
Esthetic It has different meanings depending on the context where it is used, although they all revolve around the perception of The beautiful thing.
In everyday contexts, it is used to refer to the physical appearance of a person, of a thing or of space. For example: "Putting the trash can on the door affects the aesthetics of the facade."
The word esthetic It can also refer to hygiene and personal presentation. For example: "This child has obtained A in aesthetics: he is always neat and his work looks orderly."
Hence also that sometimes it is called esthetic to beautification centers that include services such as waxing, skin care, reducing massages, rejuvenating treatments, etc.
There is talk of plastic surgery when a surgical intervention is performed whose purpose is to improve the physical appearance of a person.
The main aesthetic values are: beauty, balance, harmony, tragedy and horribleness.
Aesthetics, philosophy and art
In philosophy, esthetic It is the branch that studies the essence of beauty and the perception of the beauty of art, that is, taste. As a differentiated field of study, that is, as a discipline, aesthetics emerged in the 18th century, in the context of the Enlightenment or Enlightenment.
As early as 1735, the German philosopher Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten (1714-1762) described aesthetics as "the science of sensitivity and of the relationships between art and beauty" in his text Philosophical reflections on the poem.
The Prussian philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) would do the same in his work Criticism of the trial, by pointing out that aesthetics is "the branch of philosophy that studies and investigates the origin of pure feeling and its manifestation as art."
However, the discussion about the nature of the beautiful is as old as philosophy and art. For this reason, it has been treated since Ancient Greece by authors such as Plato and Aristotle. Plato theorized about beauty and art in works such as The banquet Y The Republic. In them, he introduced the notion of the arts as an imitation of the Idea (mimesis).
See also Imitation.
Aristotle, who had been a student of Plato, would do the same in works such as Poetic art Y Rhetoric and PoliticsBut I would put Platonic idealism aside to focus on a material approach. It will be he who develops the idea of catharsis.
These two authors thus represent the two main analytical approaches to beauty that have taken place in the West. From them, other authors have discussed the subject and its implications throughout history.
Among them we can mention Plotinus, Saint Augustine, Saint Thomas Aquinas, Leonardo Da Vinci, René Descartes, Joseph Addison, Shaftesbury, Francis Hutcheson, Edmund Burke, David Hume, Madame de Lambert, Diderot, Lessing, Voltaire, Wolff, Gottlieb Baumgarten , Inmanuel Kant, Friedrich Shlegel, Novalis, Hegel, among others.