Meaning of Stoicism
What is Stoicism:
As Stoicism is called the philosophical doctrine that practiced the control of the passions that disturb life using virtue and reason. As such, its object was to achieve happiness and wisdom regardless of comforts, material goods and fortune. Hence, it also designates a certain moral attitude, related to strength and equanimity in character.
The ideal of the Stoics was to achieve imperturbability and a certain degree of independence from the external world. Although it was a fundamentally ethical doctrine, it also had its own logical and physical conceptions. It was influenced by the Cynics and Heraclitus.
The Stoic school was founded by Zenón de Citio towards the year 301 a. of C. in Athens. They used to meet in a portico of the city, from which it derived its name, which comes from the Greek Στωϊκός (Stoikós), derived from στοά (stoá), which means ‘portico’.
It was one of the most influential Hellenic philosophical schools. Its boom period is recorded between the 3rd century BC. of C. and II d. Its weakening coincided with the rise of Christianity.
In the Stoic doctrine three phases are recognized: a first, headed by Zeno and Chrysippus, called ancient Stoicism; the second, characterized by the contributions of Panecio and Posidonio, is known as Middle Stoicism, and finally, the New Stoicism is found, represented by figures of the stature of Seneca, Epícteto and Marco Aurelio.