Meaning of Eugenics
What is Eugenics:
Eugenics is the elimination of individuals who conventional science considers to be carriers of defective genes or who do not meet the genetic and biological standards set.
The word eugenics comes from the Greek and is composed of eu indicating "good", "correct", and genius, which refers to the origin. It shares the same root as the word euthanasia, being that, in this case, thanatos indicates "death".
Eugenics was widely applied in the Nazi regime between 1933 and 1945, incurring mass murder and selective sterilization among the population. It was considered a method to "improve the race."
Eugenics is considered a social philosophy that integrates knowledge from various areas such as genetics, psychology, biology, anatomy, politics, economics, medicine, among others, to justify the "self-direction of human evolution."
Eugenics currently claims to be used only for therapeutic purposes. Eugenics was reformulated in 1991 by the American psychologist Tristram Engelhardt (1941-), and baptized as genetic engineering of improvement.
The theory of eugenics is described for the first time by the Englishman Francis Galton (1822-1911) in 1883, who is inspired by the methodology of selection and improvement of horse breeding as part of its foundation in its application in the human race. .
Galton's theory of eugenics was based on three principles to justify the power of man to intervene in the selection of the birth rate and improvement of the human species:
- Darwin's theory of natural selection, developed by Charles Darwin (1809-1882) as part of his theory of the evolution of species,
- The Malthusian population theory, developed by Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834), which states that world resources have a limited capacity inversely proportional to population growth,
- The verification of the increase in diseases considered degenerative of the race such as syphilis and tuberculosis.
This theory was used as the foundation for the first theory of anthropology called social evolutionism or social Darwinism, already abandoned.