Meaning of Fertilization
What is fertilization:
Fertilization is the process of fusion of male and female sex cells for the fertilization of the ovum that will have the potential to develop a new being.
Fertilization is essential for sexual reproduction, since, for it to occur, it needs both male and female gametes.
See also Playback.
Stages of fertilization
Three stages are distinguished in fertilization according to the degree of penetration of the male gametes into the membranes of the female gamete for the fertilization of the ovum:
- 1st phase: penetration of the radiated crown.
- 2nd phase: penetration of the zona pellucida.
- 3rd phase: penetration of the plasma membrane of the oocyte.
See also Ovum.
Human fertilization occurs inside a woman's fallopian tubes. If the male (sperm) and female (oocyte) gametes unite successfully, a fertilized egg is obtained. This union will develop a zygote that will contain a mixture of chromosomes from both gametes with a new genome. This process takes about a day.
The fertilized egg will take between two to five days to descend to the uterus, where the embryo will develop. Upon reaching the uterine cavity, the embryo will take six to seven days to nest and begin to develop as a new being.
Types of fertilization
Fertilization can be divided into two types: internal or external. Human fertilization is an example of internal fertilization and external fertilization is characteristic of aquatic animals.
Internal fertilization occurs within the female's reproductive system. The gametes unite inside the animal or plant, fertilizing the ovule for the subsequent development of a new being. This type of fertilization is characteristic of mammals and birds, such as humans, cats, dolphins or storks.
External fertilization is the union of female and male sex cells outside the body of animals. It is characteristic of aquatic animals and amphibians such as toads, starfish and fish in general.
Fertilization in vitro
Fertilization in vitro It is an assisted reproduction technique that consists of the fertilization of the ovum outside its natural environment, that is, within the reproductive system of the woman or female.
In fertilization in vitro, the eggs are extracted by follicular puncture to fertilize them with sperm in a laboratory. After two to five days, when the embryo is produced, it will be transferred to the mother's uterus to continue its natural evolution.