Fiber Optic Meaning

What is Fiber Optic:

Optical fiber is called the filament or bundle of filaments made of transparent and flexible material, mainly from glass or plastic, which is used for the transmission of information over long distances by means of light signals.

In this sense, fiber optics is an efficient physical medium for transmitting data from one place to another, at higher speeds and covering greater distances than other means, such as wireless or copper cables.

As such, optical fiber is made up of a transparent core of pure glass with a coating that provides it with a lower refractive index, which means that light signals stay within the core and can travel great distances without scattering. For this reason, today there are already fiber optic cables that cross seas and oceans.

Likewise, there are different types of optical fiber depending on the use for which it is to be used. In this sense, it can find application in the field of telecommunications and computing for data transmission over long distances and with greater bandwidth; in Medicine, as sensors to measure voltage, temperature, pressure, etc., as well as for decorative lighting and lasers.

Singlemode and multimode fiber optics

A beam of light can describe different types of path within a fiber, depending on the propagation mode it uses. In this sense, two types of optical fiber are recognized, depending on the type of propagation they use: singlemode and multimode.

Single-mode fibers are those where light propagates in only one way, thanks to which it manages to transmit large amounts of information over long distances. The core diameter of a single-mode fiber is approximately 9 µm, while its cladding diameter reaches 125 µm.

Multimode fiber, on the other hand, is one in which light signals can propagate in more than one way and along more than one path, which implies that they do not arrive all at the same time and that there is the possibility of dispersion. In this sense, multimode fibers are preferably used for short distances, of between one and two kilometers at most. In this type of fiber, the diameter of the core ranges between 50 and 62.5 µm, while the diameter of the cladding, as in single-mode fiber, is 125 µm.

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