Meaning of Geography
What is geography:
Geography is the science that studies and describes the Earth and indicates the characteristics and location of the systems and elements that appear on its surface.
In a broad way, this word is also used to refer to the landscape of a territory. For example: "The geography of this area is very steep."
Geography comes from Latin geography, and in turn from the Greek γεωγραφία, (geography), composed of η γη (hê gê, "the Earth") and γραφειν (graphein, "draw", "describe").
See also Landscape.
Importance of geography
Geography is important because it covers a large number of fields, such as:
- the physical study of the planet as the knowledge of the different elements that compose it and how they move and affect our lives,
- the study of the relationships and interaction between the different layers of the Earth: atmosphere (gases), geosphere (rocks), hydrosphere (water), biosphere (life) and anthroposphere (human being),
- the study of how urban development affects the surface of the planet,
- the study of cultures and their geographical distribution,
- among others.
Due to the great diversity of topics, geographers can work together with various professionals from geologists, physicists, economists, anthropologists, psychologists, etc.
General geography is a branch of geography and can be defined as the study of differences and changes in characteristics, locations of geographical phenomena and their relationships with the natural environment and action with humans. It is usually subdivided into two large branches: physical geography and human geography.
Physical geography is part of geography and is the systematic and spatial study of the earth's surface at a global level. It focuses, in a specific way, on the space and the elements belonging to the natural geographic space.
See also Physical geography and Plate tectonics.
Human geography is situated within geography as an eminently social science whose object of study is society and its relationship with physical space. Within it, depending on the specific object of study, several areas can be distinguished, such as medical geography, transportation geography, population geography, transportation, economics, and territories.
It also studies the human being and their relationships with the environment. Human geography contains several sub-disciplines: population geography, medical geography, transportation geography, economic geography (industrial, service sector, tourist, political, social, gerontological, historical, rural geography, urban geography and cultural geography) :
Urban geography is the study of cities as urban landscapes, their urban development over time, their structure, their functions and relationships with the environment. It is related to physical geography and Anthropology.
Cultural geography is the study of cultures from a geographical point of view. It is strongly related to Anthropology. His subjects of study are the diffusion of cultural elements, cultural representations, cultural landscapes as well as the transformations that cultures cause in their environment.
See also Human geography.
Regional geography or as chorological geography studies geographic systems or complexes such as territories and landscapes. It is situated as a part of geography and in some cases it is considered similar to general geography, since it also works at a systemic and analytical level.