Meaning of Geology

What is Geology:

Geology is science that deals with the outer and inner shape of the terrestrial globe; of the nature of the subjects that compose it and of its formation; changes or alterations that they have experienced since their origin, and placement that they have in their current state.

The term geology is of Greek origin γῆ / guê / or geo which means "land" and -λογία / -logue / or logos which expresses "study". The word geology was used for the first time by Jean-André Deluc in the year 1778 and, in the year 1779, it was included as a term by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure.

As a reference to the concept given to the term geology, it can be seen that it is divided into 2 parts:

  • the external part is responsible for the study of the materials that create the earth's crust and the processes of the atmospheric layer and the biosphere and
  • the internal part studies the processes that occur in the earth's crust and the causes that originate them.

See also Biosphere.

Likewise, geology is subdivided into branches, the main ones being:

  • Mineralogy, as its name indicates, studies the rock-forming minerals that are present in the earth's crust,
  • paleontology investigates organic beings whose remains or vestiges are in a fossil state,
  • Hydrogeology consists of examining the origin, formation and properties of groundwater as well as its interaction with the soil and rocks,
  • volcanology studies volcanoes and their formation,
  • seismology science that observes earthquakes and propagation of seismic waves that form in the interior and on the earth's surface, among other sciences.

The most important advance in geology in the 20th century is the theory of plate tectonics and the estimation of the age of the planet.

The tectonic plates are located below the earth's crust, specifically in the lithosphere, the tectonic plates move at a speed of 2.5 cm / year, this speed does not allow the movements of the tectonic plates to be felt but when movements occur Sudden between them can originate phenomena such as: seismic, earthquakes, tsunamis, among others.

See also:

  • Lithostphere
  • Earthquake
  • Cycle of the rocks.

However, people who profess geology or have special knowledge in it are known as geologists.

In Mexico, they have the Institute of Geology of the National Autonomous University of Mexico in order to carry out studies and research in the area of ​​geology, as well as educate and inform scientific culture.

Historical geology

Historical geology is a science that is responsible for the study of the earth since it originated until today, through paleontology science explained above and science stratigraphy that is responsible for the study and interpretation of rocks. However, it should be considered that historical geology is different from geochronology, since the objective of historical geology is to order geological phenomena in time from the past to the present, whereas geochronology finds out the time of a phenomenon independently.

In reference to the studies carried out by historical geology, the earth according to historical facts is divided into the following periods: Archaeozoic, Proterozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic.

Structural geology

Structural geology studies the structure and rocks that make up the earth's crust. The study carried out by structural geology is in order to observe the following points: lifting of the foliations, analysis of the deformation of the rocks present and recognition of the tectonic structures in a sector such as: faults, joints, folds and foliations.

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