Meaning of Glacier
What is Glaciar:
A glacier is a thick mass of ice formed on the earth's surface by the accumulation, compaction, and recrystallization of snow.
Glaciers are apparently permanent bodies of ice that show signs of movement by action of gravity and also provide evidence of flow in the past or today.
They are formed when the annual precipitation of snow exceeds that evaporated in summer. But for this to happen, cold weather must prevail so that the snow accumulates and does not melt completely.
On the other hand, glaciation is the process of the growth and establishment of a glacier. Glaciers are made primarily of ice, but snow, air, water, and debris or sediment contained or carried by ice are also part of the body of a glacier.
Glacier translates into English as glacier for example, "The Perito Moreno glacier is beautiful”(“ The Perito Moreno glacier is beautiful ”).
Importance of the glacier
The glacier as a body of water is a reservoir of fresh water or pure water. This means that glaciers are important, since they serve as natural storage for fresh water that we can drink.
In addition, glaciers are an important part of the water cycle (or hydrological cycle) participating in the processes of evaporation and runoff, also contributing to the formation of condensation, precipitation and infiltration.
Most glaciers are in areas near the poles. The largest glaciers are those called cap glaciers and are located at the North Pole, the vast majority in Greenland, and at the South Pole, in Antarctica.
In South America, the Patagonian ice fields (Perito Moreno glacier) can be found on the border between Argentina and Chile and at the foot of the Andes, as, for example, in Bolivia and Peru.
In the rest of the world, glaciers can be seen in Norway, Russia, Alaska (Hubbard Glacier), Canada and France.
The huge expanses of ice that cover the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean are not glaciers, yet Greenland is a glacier comprising 8% of the volume and 14% of the total area of the world's glaciers.
Antarctica comprises 91% of the volume and 84% of the total area of the world's glaciers, and all glaciers accumulate approximately 70% of the world's fresh water. The rest of the glaciers comprise less than 1% of the volume and 4% of the total area of the world's glaciers.
Types of glaciers
The world's glaciers are varied and are classified according to their shape, their climatic environment and their thermal conditions.
In this sense, we can find the following types of glaciers:
- Valley or alpine glaciers: These are generally small, cover forests and often form ice tongues, such as the Hubbard Glacier in Alaska.
- Cap glaciers: they are large, covering land masses located mostly between Greenland and Antarctica, such as the southern Patagonian ice field.
- Plateau glaciers: they are the smallest and cover plateaus such as glaciers in Iceland and some islands in the Arctic Ocean.
On the other hand, icebergs are chunks of glaciers.
The melting of glaciers
Currently, about 10% of the Earth is covered with glaciers. In recent geological times that percentage reached 30%.
Global warming, like climate change on a global scale, is causing the glacial ice to melt further, causing the oceans to rise and less ice or pure water to accumulate every year. In this sense, it is causing a drastic change in the ecosystem.