Artificial intelligence (AI)

What is artificial intelligence?

The term artificial intelligence (AI) refers to intelligence operations executed by machines designed to reproduce the capabilities of the human brain through combinations of algorithms.

More specifically, artificial intelligence is one that allows certain machines to perceive the environment around them and respond to it in a similar way to the human brain. This involves the ability to perform functions such as reasoning, perception, learning, and problem solving.

Computer science, logic, philosophy and robotics have contributed to the creation and design of machines capable of solving problems using the artificial intelligence model.

John MacCarthy, Marvin Minsky, and Claude Shannon first coined the term artificial intelligence in 1956. They defined it as the "science and ingenuity of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs."

However, the first inquiries go back to the Greeks. Aristotle was the first, in fact, to describe the workings of human thought and the rules by which it is capable of reaching rational conclusions.

Examples of artificial intelligence

AI is present in much of today's technology, especially in smartphones, tablets, computers and all kinds of devices with integrated electronic systems.

As an example of artificial intelligence in daily life we ​​can refer:

  • home automation (intelligent air conditioning, programming of lights and appliances on and off, etc.);
  • autonomous vehicles;
  • voice assistants such as Google Assistant, Siri (Apple) or Alexa (Amazon Echo), among others;
  • Google predictive dictionary;
  • image recognition software;
  • security and fraud control software;
  • habit analysis software;
  • predictions for digital marketing;
  • predictions and suggestions for the consumption of news, music, films, series, etc.

Types of artificial intelligence

From a theoretical point of view, there are four different types of artificial intelligence today, according to researcher Arend Hintze. Let's see.

Reactive machines

It refers to those machines designed to evaluate the information available in the environment and solve an immediate problem based on that information. This type of AI does not store or memorize and therefore does not learn. Your task is to analyze the information of a certain moment, build possible solutions and choose the most efficient one.

In 1990, IBM created a system with this capability called Deep Blue, responsible for having won a match against champion chess player Garry Kasparov. Today, reactive AI is used in autonomous cars, for example.

Machines with limited memory

It refers to the technology that uses information obtained from a database and that, in addition, can record basic information about the environment and learn from it. This is the case, for example, of GPS technology.

Machines with theory of mind

It is a type of AI that is still in development. It is expected that in the future certain machines will be able to understand both human thought and feelings and make decisions from it. It therefore involves social interaction. An example of investigation of this type of AI is the robot Sophia, created in 2016.

Machines with self-awareness

The machines with self-consciousness would be those capable of having self-conscious perceptions, thoughts and attitudes, that is, machines capable of perceiving, reasons and acting like human beings.

Characteristics of artificial intelligence

  • Ability to react to the information available in the environment;
  • Memory and learning from specific experiences;
  • Ability to solve specific problems;
  • Adaptability;
  • Sensory perception ability (auditory, visual, tactile);
  • Ability to manage, that is, a coherent and clear infrastructure for its application;
  • Resilience, that is, capacity for optimization;
  • Good performance, that is, the ability to efficiently handle large amounts of information;
  • Measurable character to quantify performance and make future investments.
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