Meaning of lysosomes
What is lysosomes:
Lysosomes are characteristic vesicles of animal cells whose function is the transport of proteins sent by the Golgi apparatus and the digestion or decomposition of molecules.
Proteins that are delivered to lysosomes are tagged by the endoplasmic reticulum with hydrophobic amino acid sequences called signal peptides.
In biology, lysosomes are organelles that belong to the endomembrane system, defined as the group of membranes and organelles of eukaryotic cells (which have a cell nucleus) whose main function is the modification, classification and transport of lipids and proteins .
In this sense, the endomembrane system is made up of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes (animal cell), vacuoles (plant cell) and the plasma membrane.
Structure and function of the lysosome
The structure of a lysosome is quite simple. It is surrounded by a lipid bilayer, a membrane that carries the proteins sent by the Golgi apparatus. Inside it is a mixture of digestive enzymes specific to the cell in which it is found.
In this way, lysosomes have 3 main functions: the transport of proteins, the degradation of molecules by digestive enzymes and the digestion of pathogens or foreign particles that enter the cell from the outside.
Characteristics of the lysosome
Lysosomes are characterized by being simple-structured organelles or vesicles of animal cells that possess hydrolytic or digestive enzymes. These enzymes function as a center for: reuse of old or unused structures, digestion of pathogens and breakdown of molecules.
The digestion of pathogens is done through phagocytosis.The lysosome fuses with the invaginated pathogen called phagosome and once together the digestive enzymes destroy the pathogen.
The chemical composition of lysosomes contains acid hydrolases and a pH of 5.
Lysosomes are part of the animal cell, being the vacuoles those that exert the functions of lysosomes in plant cells.