Meaning of Megadiversity
What is Megadiversity:
Megadiversity refers to the large number and diversity of animal, plant and ecosystem species that exist in a region or country.
The term originated in the Environmental Conservation Monitoring Center, an organism of the United Nations Environment Program, whose purpose is to promote the care and protection of megadiverse territories, since they concentrate an important natural wealth that does not is in other spaces.
There are 17 countries that have been classified as megadiverse, which are distributed among America, Africa, Oceania and Asia. These countries have about 70% of the world's diversity, in a territory that does not exceed 10% of the total surface of planet Earth.
In America there are Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, the United States, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. In Africa are South Africa, Madagascar and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
In Oceania are Australia and Papua New Guinea. In Asia, the countries with the highest mega-diversity are China, the Philippines, Indonesia, India and Malaysia.
Brazil, China and Mexico are the countries with the highest percentage of mega-diversity.
See also Megadiverse.
As can be seen, America is the continent with the most megadiverse countries, followed by Asia, Africa and Oceania. For several years these territories have been in danger due to various human activities that affect their natural balance.
Among the most serious dangers facing these territories are deforestation, climate change, poaching of endangered animals, overexploitation of natural resources, invasive species, growth of urban areas, among others.
Consequently, in 2002 the Group of Related Megadiverse countries was founded in Mexico, at whose first meeting the Cancun Declaration was signed.
This Declaration establishes the agreement and cooperation in order to promote the conservation and sustainable use of the natural diversity of its member countries, as well as the need to create an international regime that protects mega-diversity.
See also Diversity.
Characteristics of the countries with mega-diversity
The countries that are among the most megadiverse are characterized by:
- They have a geographic location close to tropical regions.
- They are large countries, therefore they cover a greater number of territory and species.
- They have a diversity of landscapes such as areas of humid jungle, mountains, forests, islands, among others.
- Some are or have islands that are distant from other territories and therefore have unique species.