Meaning of homogeneous mixtures
What are homogeneous mixtures:
A homogeneous mixture is the combination of 2 or more unidentifiable elements or substances (which can occur in any state of matter) within the solution.
Homogeneous mixtures are characterized by being uniform, that is, the elements that compose them are not distinguishable with the naked eye.
Life is only possible thanks to mixtures, both homogeneous and heterogeneous, of nature.
Air, for example, is one of the homogeneous mixtures essential for life, whose components cannot be separated or perceived as separate elements.
Air is a homogeneous mixture of gases composed mainly of Nitrogen (N2), but it also contains oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and other elements such as argon (Ar) and krypton (Kr).
Homogeneous mixtures in chemistry
In chemistry, homogeneous mixtures are also called solutions. The components of solutions are called solute and solvent. The solute is what dissolves or the element with the least amount and the solvent is the one that is generally found in the greatest amount.
In addition to identifying homogeneous mixtures as solutions, the techniques for separating elements in the mixture differ from those used for heterogeneous mixtures.
The separation methods in homogeneous mixtures are the following:
- Extraction - is based on polarity, such as the use of chloroforms and alcohols to extract liquids.
- Chromatography: use of interactions between solutes divided into mobile phase and stationary phase such as, for example, the first chlorophyll extractions that identify the different types of chlorophyll for the first time.
- Crystallization: it is based on control over temperature, pressure or solubility in cold or hot solvents, such as, for example, the processes for obtaining brown sugar or white sugar.
- Evaporation: in obtaining sea salt in an artisanal way, for example, this process is used to separate the salt from the water through evaporation.
- Distillation: separates 2 or more liquids that have different boiling points, such as the distillation of mezcal, grapes and sugar cane to extract the alcohol from the plant.
See also Chemical solution.
Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures
Homogeneous mixtures differ from heterogeneous ones by having components that cannot be differentiated.
In chemistry, homogeneous mixtures are called solutions and their components called solute (less quantity) and solvent (greater quantity). In heterogeneous mixtures, on the other hand, it is possible to distinguish the elements that make it up.
Both mixtures correspond to the 2 types of classification of chemical mixtures and each of them have different properties and characteristics, as we can see, for example, in the separation techniques of their components.