What is the Microprocessor:
A microprocessor is the electronic circuit that processes the energy necessary for the electronic device in which it is located to function, executing the commands and programs appropriately. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) of a computer is an example of a microprocessor.
This electronic component is part of the motherboard of a computer and is characterized by being an integrated circuit with thousands and sometimes even millions of transistors.
It is called micro because of its English meaning that indicates “small”, in relation to the importance of its function in a device, sometimes compared to the brain and the heart of human beings.
Function of a microprocessor
This electronic component is responsible for processing and executing the instructions encoded in binary numbers.
The microprocessor is commonly known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of different electronic devices, but other devices such as hard drives also contain processors.
The function of the microprocessor is so important that it is currently considered the most influential electronic component in human life.
At an economic level, it is the most commercialized product worldwide and, at a social level, it is the most used object, present in a wide variety of electronic devices and components, as well as computers, cell phones, smartphones and tablets.
Characteristics of a microprocessor
Thanks to technological and scientific advancement, nowadays a microprocessor is capable of receiving instructions, decoding them, searching for compatible programs to execute them, executing them, analyzing the data and displaying the results of said process in 1 second or less.
Microprocessors use the same logic that is used by the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of a digital computer, they work by executing very simple logical operations such as adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing.
The microprocessor of a computer is its brain, since it is in charge of processing and executing the necessary functions for the execution of the programs that are in it.
The connection of the thousands or millions of electronic transistors is not done at random, since for these to be installed they need a particular connection located on the motherboard or motherboard It is known as the processor socket, since in its beginnings it was installed to the plate and could not be changed.
Types of microprocessors
Microprocessors can be distinguished by their internal and external speed, which also determines the processed bits per second, as well as the ability to access memory and the repertoire of computer-level instructions and programs that can be processed.
The types of microprocessors also differ by manufacturer, with the most commercial brands being Intel, AMD and Qualcomm.
Each type of microprocessor has a model that indicates the prototype of which it is a copy. In this sense, each model has a certain technology and the internal data bus width, that is, the length of the word in bits (like the clock speed that is measured in Mhz).
Parts of a microprocessor
The microprocessor is made up of registers, a control unit, an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) and depending on the type of microprocessor it can also contain a floating point calculation unit.
The microprocessor is a critical component in the evolution of computer capabilities.
Today, there are a wide variety of microprocessors. The best-known models and brands are, for example, the Intel Pentium Pro from Intel, the PowerPC 620 from IBM, Motorola and Apple, the UltraSparc-II from Sun Microsystems and the Alpha 21164A from Digital Equipment Corporation. They all have many more transistors than the first microprocessors originally had. These enjoy 5.5; 7; 5.4; and 9.3 million transistors respectively.
In 1971, Intel released the first commercial microprocessor known as Intel4004. It was the first time that thousands and millions of electronic transistors were gathered on a chip, the first being 4 bits, being able to carry out 60,000 operations per second.
In 1979, the second 8-bit Intel8008 model emerged, managing to execute up to 200,000 operations per second.