Meaning of Naturalism
What is Naturalism:
Naturalism is a philosophical, literary and artistic movement that exposes an accurate, absolute and trustworthy interpretation of reality but, emphasizing in its entirety that nature is the beginning of everything that is real and existing.
The term naturalism derives from the Latin naturalis, which is used to name all those philosophical currents that start from the idea that everything that exists has a natural origin.
Naturalism emerged in France around the end of the 19th century as a derivation of realism and later spread throughout the rest of the world.
For the followers of this current, nature is the origin and the real representation of everything physical that exists. Naturalists consider that all living things and events are generated by natural causes.
Therefore, naturalists are concerned with reproducing the reality that surrounds them, from an objective perspective, describing every detail, including those that may be unpleasant for many people, in order to expose and explain human behavior.
Consequently, the results of naturalistic artistic, literary or philosophical works can be considered by others as amoral, since, in their eagerness to faithfully recreate the reality and nature of the human being, the works come to contain very detailed and specific descriptions of what they observe.
Naturalism is also characterized by criticizing tyranny, social differences, exalting eroticism in a vulgar way, by the absence of lyricism in literature and by making an effort to expose and reflect human behavior.
Naturalism in philosophy
Philosophical naturalism is based on the fact that knowledge depends on the interpretation of the laws of nature, that is why for philosophical naturalists everything real is natural and they reject the idea of the existence of the supernatural.
Some of these philosophicalists even have the view that nature is determined by the concept of evolution, as it was exposed in the theory of Charles Darwin.
Philosophical naturalism is also related to determinism, on which it relies to explain that human problems are due to their genetic origin, environment and social class.
That is, everything that happens is real and can be explained through scientific research.
See also Realism.
Naturalism in art
Naturalism is an artistic trend that emerged in France in the mid-nineteenth century. This current opposes the characteristic idealism of Romanticism to show the reality of society as a critique of its grotesque state.
Naturalism in literature
Literary naturalism is characterized by objectively reflecting the crudest and most disagreeable descriptions of reality.
In literature, naturalism is based on determinism in order to show that man is a prisoner of the conditions in which he lives and develops, hence it focuses on deepening and describing in detail the reality of the human being.
Naturalist authors are characterized by addressing in their texts the harshness and darkness of certain situations in which many people found themselves with issues such as poverty, alcoholism, prostitution, differences in social classes and social dramas. , family or personal.
The authors who identified with literary naturalism were also characterized by exposing their texts the disappointment and pessimism about the reality they lived by considering that life was conditioned to the laws of nature.
The language used by naturalists in literary works is characterized by the use of popular and vulgar jargon as a mechanism to enhance the crudeness of their descriptions and to portray their vision of reality, leaving aside delicacy, lyricism and romanticism.
Among the most recognized authors of naturalism are the Frenchman Émile Zola, who was a journalist and one of the greatest exponents of literary naturalism.
Gustave Flaubert, Máximo Gorki (Russian), Rómulo Gallegos (Venezuelan), Federico Gamboa (Mexican) and Truman Capote (American) can also be named.