Cell nucleus meaning
What is Cell Nucleus:
The cell nucleus is a membranous organelle found in the center of eukaryotic cells (not in prokaryotic cells, where there is no nucleus).
In the cell nucleus is most of the genetic material of the cell. Its main function is to protect the integrity of these genes and regulate the activities that take place in the cell and that determine gene expression.
The first cellular organelle to be discovered was the nucleus. Initially observed by Anton van Leeuwenhoek and later described by Franz Bauer, this organelle receives the name by which it is now known thanks to the Scottish scientist Robert Brown, who named it in 1831.
See also Cell and Plant cell.
Functions of the cell nucleus
The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of genes and to control cellular activities that regulate gene expression. It is the control center of the cell, as it is the one that governs cellular activities.
In the cell nucleus the production of enzymatic proteins of the cell is controlled. To do this, it uses the mRNA (or messenger RNA), which is responsible for carrying the information to the ribosomal RNA in the cytoplasm. There, the synthesis of enzymatic proteins that control metabolic processes occurs.
In addition, in the cell nucleus are the DNA chromosomes, which contain all the genetic information of the individual, which is passed to the daughter cells during cell division.
- Cellular cycle.
- RNA and DNA.
Parts of the cell nucleus
The nuclear envelope is the main structure of the cell nucleus; It is composed of a double membrane (one external and one internal) that completely surrounds the organelle and separates its contents from the cytoplasm.
The nucleolus is responsible for the synthesis of ribosomes before they are exported to the cytoplasm.
The plasma nucleus, also known as karyolymph, karyoplasm or nuclear cytosol, is the internal medium of liquid consistency of the cell nucleus. In it are the chromatins and nucleoli.
In the cell nucleus, chromatin is the substance that contains DNA. This is subdivided, in turn, into euchromatin, a less compact form of DNA, and heterochromatin, a more compact form.
Ribosomes are produced in the nucleolus and subsequently exported to the cytoplasm, where they will translate the mRNA.
The nuclear pores are those that allow the passage, from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, of RNA, ribosomes, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, etc.