What is nucleotide:
The nucleotide is a monomer whose chains form the macromolecules called nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). Strings of nucleotides are called polynucleotides.
There are 2 types of nucleotides: ribonucleotides that make up ribonucleic acid or RNA and deoxyribonucleotides that make up deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA.
In eukaryotic cells, that is, cells that have a defined cell nucleus, the nucleotide is found in the nucleus, whereas in prokaryotic cells (without a defined nucleus) the nucleotide is found in the nucleoid.
In molecular biology, nucleotides, being the base units of DNA, which contains the genetic information of the cell, and of RNA, which stores and transports information to ribosomes for protein synthesis, are part of what is called " central dogma ", that is, the passage of information from DNA to RNA and then to the ribosome for the synthesis of proteins.
The nucleotide structure is made up of 3 parts: a nitrogenous base, a 5-carbon sugar and a phosphate group.
The polynucleotide chain is characterized by its directionality where the tail is called the 3 'end and the head the 5' end.
The nitrogenous base is a ring structure that contains nitrogen and these can be purines or pyrimidines. Purines can be adenines (A) or Guanine (G) and pyrimidines are divided into cytosine (C) or Uracil (U).
5 carbon sugar
The 5-carbon sugar in polynucleotide chains has a central position that connects carbon (C) with one or more phosphate group. Sugar is attached to its neighbors by a series of bonds called phosphodiester bonds.
The carbon atoms of the sugar are each referred to as 1 '(one prime), 2' (two prime), 3 '(three prime), 4' (four prime, and 5 '(five prime). Nitrogen bases bind to the 1 'carbon and the 5' phosphate groups.
The phosphate group is 2 fused rings of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and in a polynucleotide chain one or more groups can be joined.
The phosphate group is connected to the first carbon of the sugar (5 ') through phosphodiester bonds.
It is important to note that the nucleotide structure is the basis for the nucleic acid structure (DNA and RNA), therefore, they share the structure of: a nitrogenous base, a 5-carbon sugar and a phosphate group.
Nucleotide and nucleic acids
The nucleotide is the base unit of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and contains 4 nitrogenous bases, a 5-carbon sugar and a phosphate group.
The nitrogenous bases of nucleic acids are made up of 2 purines and 2 pyrimidines. The nitrogenous bases of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are: Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T). and those of ribonucleic acid (RNA) are: Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C) and Uracil (U).
The 5-carbon sugar in DNA is called deoxyribose and the sugar in RNA is called ribose.
Nucleotide and nucleoside
The nucleoside is the part of the nucleotide that is made up of the nitrogenous base and the 5-carbon sugar or pentose, excluding the phosphate group.
The nitrogenous base can be Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C) (for DNA and RNA) Thymine (T) (for DNA) or Uracil (U) (for RNA). And sugar can be deoxyribose for DNA or ribose for RNA.