Meaning of Cognitive Paradigm
What is Cognitive Paradigm:
The cognitive paradigm is defined as a set of theoretical principles and research programs related to the functioning of the mind in general and the acquisition of knowledge in particular.
The cognitive paradigm emerges as a critique of the behaviorist paradigm, taking into consideration the historical changes of the postwar period with respect to the changes that the entry of information technology generates in the area of communication and, as a consequence, in the knowledge process.
Also known as an integral part of cognitive science, it encompasses a set of theories that seek to study the mental representation of knowledge processes in relation to learning and human behaviors for problem solving.
It is framed within rationalism taking into account reason as the source of all knowledge.
Cognitivism has developed since the early twentieth century and focuses primarily on education and meaningful learning. It is within the area of cognitive science that is based on the functional analogy between the human mind and the forms of computer processing. The analogy is functional, but not structural, since it compares information processing systems of the same class by means of symbol processing.
See also Analogy.
This approach encompasses language skills, information theory, and computer science as well as other postwar paradigms, such as the sociocultural paradigm.
See also Sociocultural paradigm.
In psychology, cognitivism, or also referred to as cognitive psychology, studies the complexity of higher learning processes in relation to concept formation and problem solving.
The cognitive system, whether animate or artificial, is made up of the following elements: receptors, motor system, and cognitive processes.
In this sense, cognitive processes are those that interpret and identify the information sent by the receivers, control the actions on the performers, guide the distribution of cognitive resources such as the memory of actions and experiences.
See also Cognitivism.
Cognitive paradigm in psychology
The Swiss thinker Jean Piaget (1896-1980) introduces concepts of accommodation and assimilation of knowledge through internal motivations. In his psychogenetic theory, he affirms that the genetic interpretation of the child is the only way of understanding intelligence and its logical operations, delivering the notions of space-time, perception, constancy and geometric illusions.
In turn, Piaget defines in his cognitive paradigm four phases in the development of the construction of human knowledge from infancy to adulthood.
- Piaget's stages of development.
- Cognitive and Cognitive.
On the other hand, the American psychologist Jerome Bruner (1915-2016) introduces in his instructional theory that learning is based on the active processing of information according to its individual organization. Define three mental models: activating, iconic and symbolic.
The American psychologist David Ausubel (1918-2008) postulates in his theory of meaningful learning the concept of didactic teaching to achieve learning. Tackles the concepts of meaningful learning and machine learning.
Meaningful learning uses pre-existing information in the individual to connect with the cognitive structure of each student.
On the other hand, machine learning serves as a complementary or simultaneous way that incorporates new knowledge in a repetitive or rote way.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a form of therapy that encompasses the principles and techniques of learning theory. Emphasizes the importance of cognitive processes in the development, maintenance and modification of behavior. This type of therapy teaches the subject to face their difficulties in order to have greater control of their life.
Cognitive paradigm in education
In educational psychology or psychopedagogy, the cognitive paradigm assesses the student's cognitive competence to learn and solve problems.
See also Psychopedagogy.
For the definition of the student's cognitive competence, in order to create the most appropriate strategy for learning and problem solving, the following points should be evaluated:
- Basic learning processes (processes of attention, perception, coding, memory and information retrieval).
- Knowledge base (abilities, skills, concepts, previous knowledge).
- Cognitive styles and attributions (ways of learning).
- Strategic knowledge (general and specific strategies learned).
- Metacognitive knowledge (knowledge through personal cognitive experiences and processes).
Types of teaching of the cognitive paradigm
For this, the psychologist David Ausubel defines two types of learning: repetitive or rote learning (superficial or mechanical processing) as an initial or reinforcement phase, and significant learning (deep processing) as the way in which new information from substantial form.