Parts of the flower
Flowers are a fundamental and specialized part of plants, this is because they are responsible for carrying out their sexual reproduction, from which the seeds arise that will give life to the next plants of the same species and so on.
They are characterized by being a stem with determined growth, whose leaves are responsible for the reproduction of gametes. The more specialized flowers have a short growth period.
Most plants produce flowers and are called spermatophytes. These spermatophytes are differentiated into two groups:
- Gymnosperms: plants that have flowers that gather in reproductive or fertile leaves known as strobili.
- Angiosperms: these are plants that have a typical flower that can even reproduce fruits with seeds. They are the most advanced and predominant plants on Earth.
Now, the flowers have a delicate structure that begins in the stem of the plant and from there the other parts develop. Although there are thousands of species of flowers, they all share parts that are essential for their growth, pollination and reproduction.
The peduncle is the last part of the stem that supports the flower, which widens or dilates at its end giving shape to the receptacle, it is where the modified and specialized leaves of the flowers responsible for their reproduction are inserted.
The receptacle or floral axis is the part that follows the peduncle, since it is its widening and where the leaves of the flower and the rest of its parts settle.
The floral envelope is called perianth, that is, the leaves that protect and surround the reproductive organs of the flower. In the perianth are the sterile whorls of the flower: the calyx and the corolla. In this way it protects the reproductive organs of the flowers in their development process.
Once this stage is completed, the perianth takes on a striking color to attract pollinating animals.
- Calyx: it is a structure composed of sepals, which are similar to leaves and green in color. Its function is to protect and support the petals of the flower when it is still a bud.
- Corolla: is the part composed of the colorful and striking petals or anthophiles of the flower in order to attract pollinating animals. The corolla gives shape to the flower and is generated after the sepals.
The carpel forms the female reproductive part of the flower. The set of carpels forms the gynoecium, which may contain one or more pistils.
Pistil refers to the units of the female organ of the flower that contains the style, stigma and ovaries, which together make up the carpel.
Gyneceous is the female reproductive system of the flower. It is formed by one or more green leaves or carpels united or separated through a pistil, on which the ovules that contain the female gametes are produced. The gynoecium is made up of the following elements:
- Style: cylindrical and tubular structure that serves to store and conduct pollen.
- Stigma: is the upper part of the pistil. Its function is to make the sticky nectar necessary for pollen.
- Ovary: it is located in the lower area of the pistil formed by one or more carpelar leaves. It contains the ovules that will be fertilized by the male pollen.
The male gametes of the flower, which are composed of the following parts, are called androecium:
- Stamen: is the male organ that develops in flowers and where pollen is produced.
- Anther: terminal part of the flower stamen, the place where pollen production takes place.
- Filament: it is the part that supports the anther, it is also the sterile part of the stamen. It can vary in size and shape depending on the type of flower.
- Teak: is where the pollen grains are found.
The petals vary according to the type of flower and its colors, which in addition to attracting pollinating animals, also attract people's eyes.