Meaning of Peroxisome
What is Peroxisome:
Peroxisome is an organelle present in eukaryotic cells (with a defined cell nucleus) that float in the cytosol and perform metabolic functions such as oxidation and elimination of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
Peroxisomes are formed from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and in mitochondria (only in animal cells) and were first discovered by the cytologist and biochemist Christian de Duve (1917-2013), together with lysosomes.
They are called peroxisomes because the first enzymes found in their structure were peroxidases. They are found in the cytosol and are called organelles because they are compartments with specialized functions.
Peroxisomes are characterized by their ability to change size and form new peroxisomes through division.
Peroxisomes change enzymes to fulfill the necessary metabolic functions of each cell depending on the function of the cell, the most common being urate oxidase and catalase. Around 50 different types of enzymes have been identified.
In addition, the peroxisome is distributed in the cytoplasm by the microtubules of the cell's cytoskeleton and matures by incorporating the proteins synthesized by the ribosomes.
Peroxisome in animal cell
Peroxisomes in animal cells are formed both in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and in the mitochondria. Some of the metabolic functions of peroxisomes include lipid metabolism and protection of cells against oxidation.
Peroxisome in plant cell
Peroxisomes in plant cells and fungi are exclusive organelles for the process called ß-oxidation, where carbon dioxide (CO2) residues are oxidized for photorespiration.
In this sense, photorespiration is the use of oxygen (O2) and the release of carbon dioxide (CO2).