Meaning of Porfiriato
What is Porfiriato:
The Porfiriato was a period in the political history of Mexico during which General Porfirio Díaz ruled the country, between 1876 and 1911.
In these years a relative economic and material progress was achieved, and the country was pacified, although at the cost of great repression, inequality and social injustice.
Porfirio Díaz was a highly prestigious soldier within the military forces and a good part of Mexican political circles. He had a prominent participation during the War of the Reform and and a leading role in the French Intervention.
Díaz reached the presidency of Mexico thanks to a military rebellion and the triumph of the Plan of Tuxtepec. He came to power on November 28, 1876, and ruled, with just a four-year break between 1880 and 1884, until May 25, 1911, thirty years in all.
Characteristics of the porfiriato
The Porfiriato is a period that was characterized, economically, by bringing material progress and foreign capital to Mexico, as well as by investment in the field of mining and agriculture, by promoting national industry and by connecting the country with rail lines and telegraphic.
Politically, it was a period of relative stability, since the pacification of the country (the so-called Porfirian peace) was achieved, thanks to the use of force, persecution and repression of any form of social discontent, thus assuming the characteristics of a dictatorship.
All of the above, in turn, resulted, on the social level, in great tensions within Mexican society, especially among the Porfirian oligarchy (large landowners, foreigners, industrialists), emerged in the shadow of the general, and holder of political power and economic, and the working masses, the peasantry and the indigenous, particularly mistreated and exploited during the regime.
End of the Porfiriato and Mexican Revolution
The Porfiriato came to an end in 1911, as a consequence of the weakening of its political and military power and the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution.
In 1910, Díaz, eighty years old, still aspired to a new reelection for the presidency of the country. However, the candidacy of Francisco I. Madero under the slogan "effective suffrage, no re-election", got in his way and Madero was sent to prison by the dictator.
Meanwhile, Madero manages to escape from prison and proclaims the plan of San Luis, which, among other things, did not know Díaz as president of the nation and called for rebellion on November 20, 1910, the day that is currently celebrated. like the Day of the Mexican Revolution.
For their part, Pancho Villa, from the north, and Emiliano Zapata, from the south, joined Madero and delivered significant military defeats to Díaz.
So Díaz, militarily and politically weakened, finally decided to resign from the presidency and left Mexico in May 1911. In this way, the conclusion of the Porfiriato coincides with the social movement that would radically alter the country's political, social and economic structures. , also known as the Mexican Revolution.