Meaning of Rationalism
What is Rationalism:
Rationalism is understood to be the philosophical doctrine that affirms and sustains the supremacy of reason over experience. Rationalism is the absolutization of reason.
The thesis of rationalism is characterized by the real, by the concepts or mental systems and the explanation of science in logical terms.
This arises in the seventeenth century and the philosopher René Descartes is usually pointed out as the father of rationalism, who argued that the only way to obtain universal truths from which all the remaining knowledge of science emanates is reason.
That is why rationalism says that reason is the generator of knowledge and that these knowledge are innate in being, but that they are hidden in our mind.
On some occasions, rationalism is associated with atheism, since all its positions and theses put reason before experience and even exalt it over faith itself.
In the doctrine of rationalism it is argued that man as a thinking being, capable of reasoning, uses this tool to generate knowledge, that is, knowledge and leaves the perception of the senses and experience itself on a more distant plane, since the reason is within being and is innate to it.
The term rationalism is also used in architecture and it serves to refer to that branch of architecture that opposed the excessive ornamentation that was proposed in the art nouveau and that was developed at the end of the First World War.
See also Art nouveau.
This movement sought to encourage the construction of simple and dynamic forms that had to be made with materials such as steel and concrete.
Rationalism and empirical
We have already said that these two theories are contrary to each other, however it is important to say that the empirical method is based on experience and maintains that knowledge derives from lived experiences (empirical method), and from what is recorded at through the senses, such as the method of observation.
But the rational model, as we have already explained, expresses that reason is more important than experience, since the senses can be deceiving a person, for whatever reasons, while reason cannot deceive being.
It is in this way that these theses or theories contradict each other, giving more importance to reason (rationalism) and the other to experience and the perception of the senses (empiricism).
For more information, see the article Empiricism.
Rationalism and positivism
Positivism arises as a branch of empiricism since they only consider as valid the knowledge that comes exclusively from experience.
This provided scientific knowledge for the reorganization of social life as a human being, understanding that it must be studied by science, starting from the experiences lived by humanity after the entire process of the Industrial Revolution that brought with it the study of the worker. as a human being and a person full of rights.
See also Philosophical Currents.
Rationalism and surrealism
Surrealism is presented as an anti rationalist idea, that is, it is the antithesis of it, by virtue of the thought or idea that explains that realism (rationalism) is an attempt to appropriate the multiple possible ways of seeing reality or being realistic , since there are infinite ways to signify, know or conceptualize that immeasurable whole that we call reality.
It is logical to understand that in surrealism imagination clearly predominates and has great preponderance over reason and perception, since the latter two must adapt to everything that human beings can and are capable of imagining.