Meaning of Reasoning
What is Reasoning:
Reasoning is the intellectual and logical process of human thought. The reasoning provides arguments about the mental connections incurred that justify a certain thought.
The word reasoning comes from Latin ratio which means reason together with the suffix -cent that indicates the result of something.
In philosophy, reasoning is closely linked to logic. Reasoning uses logic to create an intellectual process with the premises or data already known and verified to deduce or infer data that are not known in order to reach a conclusion. This is called logical reasoning.
The reasoning therefore is the inference or deduction of information through premises to reach a conclusion. There are several types of reasoning such as deductive and inductive reasoning.
- Argument types
Deductive reasoning considers that the conclusion is implicit in the premises. If the premises and deductive reasoning are valid, the correct conclusion is considered.
The deductive method on the other hand is a scientific method that uses deductive reasoning to reach scientific conclusions. In the deductive method the conclusions are derived from a general law or general premises, which does not extend knowledge.
For example if we have the following premises:
- Fruits contain vitamin C.
- Orange is a fruit.
The deductive reasoning would be: The orange contains vitamin C.
This type of reasoning is considered mathematical reasoning as it uses mathematical logic in its conclusions.
Inductive reasoning facilitates obtaining a general conclusion through particular premises. Inductive reasoning reaches a probable conclusion.
When using the inductive method for a scientific investigation, the experience of observation of the facts is more important than the logic or deduction of deductive reasoning. The stages of the inductive method are:
- Observation and recording of the facts,
- Analysis and classification of the facts,
- Inductive reasoning of a generalization from the facts,
For example, with the following premises:
- Fernando has four children: Rafael, Antonio, Ricardo and José.
- Rafael is a musician.
- Antonio is a musician.
- Ricardo is a musician.
- José is a musician.
The complete inductive reasoning would be: All of Ana's children are musicians.
The incomplete inductive reasoning would be: Fernando is a musician.