Meaning of Republic

What is Republic:

The Republic is an organizational system of the State where the exercise of government falls on one or more people, elected by popular or parliamentary vote, for limited periods of time, to represent the interests of citizens. The word comes from Latin public res, which means "the public thing", "what is common".

The republican system was born as an alternative expression to the monarchical type, where all power is exercised by one person, generally the king, indefinitely and hereditary. However, currently there are regimes of parliamentary monarchies, as is the case in Spain, where the king essentially plays a representative role as Head of State, but the rest of the government posts are popularly elected and limited in time.

In modern times, the republican model more clearly delineates the profile with which we know it today, with the separation of the executive, legislative and judicial powers, which seeks a balance that ensures the stability of the State, freedom, justice and equality. To a large extent, he fed on the ideals of the Enlightenment, enunciated mainly by Montesquieu, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and John Locke.

See also Modernity.

The first modern republics in Latin America emerged during this period. In the 19th century, the Spanish colonies began a series of wars whose objective was to dissociate themselves from the Spanish crown to establish new republican systems. This is how Ecuador, Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Peru, Panama and Bolivia were born.

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