What are Ribosomes:
Ribosomes are the macromolecules responsible for the synthesis or translation of the amino acids of mRNA (in eukaryotic cells) and production of proteins in living beings (in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells).
The most important function of the ribosome is the synthesis of proteins, an essential element for the general functioning of all living beings.
In prokaryotic cells (without a defined nucleus), ribosomes are produced in the cytoplasm, while in eukaryotic cells (with a defined nucleus) they are generated in the nucleolus within the cell nucleus.
In the case of ribosomes of prokaryotic cells, the ribosome translates information from the messenger RNA (mRNA or mRNA) directly and immediately.
In contrast, in eukaryotic cells, the mRNA must traverse the nuclear envelope through the nuclear pores to the cytoplasm or rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) to reach the ribosomes.
In this way, in animal and plant cells (eukaryotic cells), this type of ribosome translates the information contained in the mRNA and when combined with the correct ribosome in the cytosol, it will synthesize the protein with the specific sequence of amino acids. This process is called protein translation or synthesis.
Ribosomes are characterized by being present in the vast majority of cells of all living beings. In both prokaryotic cells (undefined nucleus) and eukaryotic cells (defined nucleus), ribosomes have the important function of synthesizing or translating information for the production of proteins.
On the other hand, proteins are the basis for most of the biological processes necessary in the life cycle of a cell. For example, they are responsible for the transport of substances, tissue regeneration and regulation of metabolism.
The function of the ribosome, both in prokaryotic (bacterial) and eukaryotic cells, is to produce proteins according to the amino acids encoded in the messenger RNA (mRNA or mRNA).
The difference between the bacterial ribosome and that of cells with a defined cell nucleus (eukaryotes) is that the ribosome of the latter also has the function of synthesizing or translating the mRNA information.
Structure of ribosomes
Ribosomes are made up of two subunits, one large and one small, plus a strand of compressed messenger RNA nucleic acid that passes between the two.
Each ribosome subunit is made up of a ribosomal RNA and a protein. Together they organize the translation and catalyze the reaction to generate polypeptide chains that will be the basis for proteins.
On the other hand, transfer RNAs (tRNA) are responsible for bringing amino acids to the ribosome and pairing the messenger RNA with the amino acids that encode the protein that will be produced by the ribosome.