Meaning of Drought
What is Drought:
Drought is a dry period that lasts significantly. It is characterized because during the drought the availability of water is below its usual levels, and, consequently, it cannot supply the needs of living beings (animals, plants and people) that inhabit a given region.
The main cause of drought is the lack of rainfall or rainfall, which is called meteorological drought.
When the meteorological drought persists, it turns into a hydrological drought, characterized by the fact that the water resources of a region are below normal levels, not being able to satisfy the usual demand.
A very prolonged hydrological drought, on the other hand, can lead to a situation of aridity, which would lead to the desertification of the land.
See also Desert.
Drought severely affects the living conditions of a place, and therefore its impact on both plant life and animal and human life is important.
Causes of drought
Drought can be due to many factors, the main one being the lack of rainfall. Rainfall occurs thanks to a series of atmospheric conditions that, if not met, can lead to the absence of rain.
There are also periodic climatic oscillations that affect certain regions and that generate seasons of relative scarcity of rain. An example of this is the El Niño phenomenon, which affects part of the American continent.
However, the human factor can also contribute to creating the conditions for a drought, especially when activities are carried out that promote soil erosion and affect their ability to absorb and retain water. Thus, activities such as overexploitation, excessive irrigation or deforestation can lead to droughts.