What is Text:
The set of coherent and ordered phrases and words that allow to be interpreted and transmit the ideas of an author (issuer or speaker) is known as text.
The word text is of Latin origin textus which means tissue.
Although it is often thought that texts are created by literary authors, scientists or journalists, the reality is that anyone who is able to read and write can write a text. An instant message, a recipe, the body of an email is composed of a text, as long as it meets some characteristics.
Characteristics of a text
The length of a text can vary from a few words to multiple paragraphs, but for a text to be effective in its function of transmitting a message, it must meet two characteristics: coherence and cohesion.
- Coherence: establishes the logical relationship between the ideas in a text, making them complement each other.
- Cohesion: establishes the harmonious connection between the various parts of the text, in the composition of paragraphs, sentences.
- Use of lexicon: it can be technical, colloquial, vulgar, cultured.
- Context: it is everything that surrounds the text, it is the circumstance, place and time in which the act of communication is taking place and that contributes to the message being understood more clearly.
Structure of a text
A text has a structure composed of an introduction, development and conclusion.
- Introduction: it is the part of the text where the topic to be discussed and the most relevant aspects of it are presented. It is a hint of what will be found in development.
- Development: is the body of the text. Here the information related to the topic indicated in the introduction is presented in a clear, precise, orderly and coherent way.
- Conclusion: it is the synthesis and assessment of the information presented. The main ideas of the topic are highlighted as a closing.
The objective of the text is to communicate a clear and precise message, be it romantic, descriptive, scientific, informative, among others, to be understood by the recipient.
Types of texts
According to the purpose and structure of the text, there are different types of texts. Some of them are:
- Argumentative texts: they allow to convince, modify and reinforce the idea of the reader or listener through justifications, grounds and reasons. Opinion articles are an example of argumentative texts.
- Scientific texts: as its name indicates, it is a writing that addresses concepts, theories, results based on scientific knowledge through scientific language.
- Descriptive texts: consists of the representation or description of a person, animal, thing, landscape, emotion, or others, such as the shopping list, product announcements, the curriculum.
- Expository texts: inform or contribute a set of data referring to events, ideas, concepts. In addition to this, they are also explanatory because they clarify and develop all the information and data provided. Academic works are expository texts.
- Epistolary texts: also known as letters, they are a type of exclusively written communication. The biblical epistles, for example, are considered the letters sent to Christian communities by the apostles Judas, Peter and John, found in the New Testament.
- Informative: they expose facts, circumstances, or other subjects in an objective, clear and precise way, such as journalistic and scientific texts.
See also Text types.
Literary and non-literary texts
Literary texts are intended to excite their reader with the use of literary resources and connotative language (symbolic or figurative), such as poems, stories, novels, romances, etc.
For its part, the use of denotative language (objective, attached to reality), is exclusive of non-literary texts, which have the main purpose of informing the reader, such as news, didactic books, theses, among others.
See also Literary text.
The sacred texts are all the bibliography that supports the most important doctrines of the different religions. Generally, they first formed part of the oral tradition and later became texts.
The Bible is the sacred text of Catholicism, the Bandage Sutra is one of the holy books of Hinduism, the Koran is one of Islam and the Torah of Judaism.