The cell is a basic and functional unit that all living beings possess, and it is of vital importance because it allows reproduction, nutrition, self-preservation and other specialized functions, important for living beings.
All living beings have cells, from the smallest or simple to the largest or complex. Hence, there are unicellular beings (with a single cell), such as bacteria, or multicellular beings (with more than one cell), such as animals.
Likewise, cells can be divided into two types based on their internal structure: eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells.
The eukaryotic cell has as its main characteristic that it has a cell nucleus delimited by a membrane and, furthermore, it is subdivided into a plant cell and an animal cell.
The eukaryotic cell is more complex than the prokaryotic cell; This is due to the fact that its nucleus is well differentiated and has an envelope that maintains the hereditary genetic material, that is, DNA, intact. Therefore, they are more complex and specialized, since they contain part of the evolution of living beings.
Likewise, the eukaryotic cell is made up of other structures that also fulfill various important tasks for living things. Among the structures are the mitochondria, chloroplasts, the Golgi apparatus, the lysosome, the endoplasmic reticulum, among others.
See also Eukaryotic cell.
The eukaryotic animal cell is characterized by not having a nucleus or a rigid cell wall, which is why it can vary in shape. Likewise, these cells have a defined nucleus that contains DNA that will be inherited by descendants, animals or humans, which are multicellular organisms.
Animal cells perform various functions necessary for the organism of animals and humans, therefore, these cells are more complex.
See also Animal cell.
The eukaryotic plant cell, unlike the animal cell, has a rigid cell wall composed of cellulose that gives it a series of characteristics typical of plants and vegetables.
The plant cell also contains chloroplasts, organelles that carry out the process of photosynthesis, since they have chlorophyll.
Likewise, the plant cell is composed of a structure capable of producing its own food, typical of autotrophic organisms, unlike the animal cell.
See also Plant cell.
The prokaryotic cell is characterized by being simpler than the eukaryotic cell and by not having a well-defined cell nucleus, therefore, the genetic material is found spread throughout the cytoplasm.
Specialists have considered that, due to the simplicity of their composition, prokaryotic cells are the oldest on Earth.
Organisms composed of prokaryotic cells are, for the most part, unicellular beings such as bacteria or cyanobacteria, which are less complex organisms than multicellular ones.
The prokaryotic cell is composed of a plasma membrane, nucleoid, genetic material in the form of DNA and RNA, cytoplasms, ribosomes, among others.