9 types of discrimination

Discrimination in society refers to the exclusive and / or violent treatment of other people with a natural, cultural or historical difference, in order to prevent or impair the exercise and enjoyment of their universal citizen rights.

Therefore, any form of discrimination is an attitude contrary to the universal principle of human rights that establishes the equality of all persons before the law.

Several types of discrimination can be recognized in society, and many times, there may be cases in which several occur at the same time. Let's look at the most important ones.

Socio-economic discrimination

It is about discrimination and exclusion based on the individual's social class. It implies all forms of humiliation, contempt, undervaluation and mistreatment derived from the social condition.

The most impoverished sectors of society are victims of this type of discrimination, who are frequently judged as potential criminals, incapable, immoral, unsanitary or undesirable. This type of discrimination is the least talked about and is, without a doubt, the most frequent.

Socio-economic discrimination can be observed when a person cannot access public services and fundamental rights (for example, when they do not have access to their documentation due to not being able to pay fees).

It is also socioeconomic discrimination when, applying the "right of admission", a poor person is prohibited from entering certain spaces because they "ugly" the place (for example, shopping centers).

Gender discrimination

There is talk of gender discrimination or sexual discrimination when the deprivation of rights of a person or the violent treatment is motivated by their gender condition. As a general rule, gender discrimination occurs against women, since the different societies of the world are structured around patriarchal power.

This is one of the most common and silent forms of discrimination, due to the fact that it is masked in the midst of historically ingrained customs and habits, that is, it is naturalized.

See also Gender equity.

Racial discrimination

The water filter is identified for use by people "of color", as people of African origin were called then.

It occurs when an individual or group is discriminated against based on their racial difference, under the ideology of the supremacy of one race over another. On this concept, for example, the slave economy system in America was articulated, as well as Western colonialism in Africa.

This type of discrimination also tends to occur within a society where people of the same race converge, but with different phenotypic traits or separated by castes. This was the case of the genocide in Rwanda, a country inheriting the caste system of Belgian colonialism.

Discrimination based on ethnic or national origin

This type of discrimination is exercised against people who belong to minority cultures within a dominant culture, or who were born in countries other than the host one.

Thus, within the same society, it is possible to see discrimination towards different ethnic-cultural groups, although when they may share race and / or nationality. It also applies the concept for discrimination against foreigners within a national state.

Religious discrimination

Religious discrimination is one that obstructs access to fundamental citizen rights based on the religion practiced by the subject.

It usually occurs in confessional States, in which the official religion is an obligatory condition of citizenship, or in those States that for ideological reasons pursue any form of religious organization.

Political or ideological discrimination

It is the one that practices all kinds of persecution, censorship and obstruction of civil and political rights based on the ideology of the victim. It implies restricting freedom of thought and expression, as well as preventing access to public life.

It is very characteristic of countries with authoritarian regimes or countries that are going through processes of political polarization. For example, during the Cold War, both in the capitalist and communist blocs, there were open persecutions of individuals "suspected" of communing with the ideology contrary to the official one.

See also Examples of fairness for a fairer world.

Discrimination based on sexual orientation

This type of discrimination is the one whose target population is people whose sexual orientations differ from heterosexuality or whose behaviors do not correspond to the role historically attributed to their gender.

For this reason, homosexuals (men or women), bisexuals, transsexuals and transvestites, that is, the LGBT community, are subject to discrimination based on sexual orientation.

Age or age discrimination

This type of discrimination usually aims at the submission and subordination of the victim based on their age.

This is the case of children and young people who face violence justified by the principle of authority of adults and are prevented from exercising freedom of expression, among other rights. It also occurs when their testimonies are not taken into account by the authorities, unless they are endorsed by an adult.

Age discrimination also affects older people who see their fundamental rights curtailed, such as the right to education or work, which excludes them from the social order and favors the multiplication of poverty.

Disability discrimination

This type of discrimination usually has to do with the invisibility of disability, considering it a minority problem, which becomes a source of dependency, poverty and social exclusion.

It covers the entire spectrum of people with physical disabilities (blindness, deafness, mobility) or intellectual (Down syndrome, autism, learning difficulties, etc.).

It is a structural problem of society, which until very recently did not contemplate policies to facilitate access for people with disabilities to studies, work and even common activities such as accessing public transport.

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