Types of violence
Violence is the action and effect of exerting force on another, whether at a physical or moral level, acting against the natural state of things.
Currently, there is an abundance of research that helps to better understand the phenomenon of violence between human beings. Knowing this information allows, in some cases, to establish measures for personal and civic re-education, prevention or correction. In others, it will barely allow the application of penalties, commensurate with the degree of violence achieved.
Let's see below what are the main types of violence that experts have managed to identify.
Violence according to the media
Psychological violence is one that produces affective, moral and psychological damage on the person without the mediation of physical force, which reduces their self-esteem. For example: blaming, threatening, coercing, spying, ignoring the other, discrediting the other, harassing, harassing, isolating, disrespecting opinion, etc. Includes verbal aggression through insults and disqualification.
It refers to all forms of violence that is used by physical force, and that causes pain, damage, wounds and even deprivation of life: pushing, hitting, pulling hair, burning, torturing, mutilating, wounding, etc.
It is that violence that denigrates the sexual integrity of a person, whether there is genital contact or not. It is understood that integrity has been violated whenever the victim does not give their express consent. Sexual violence includes: coercion, threats, intimidation and use of force, rape, harassment, abuse, sexual exploitation, human trafficking, forced prostitution, etc.
Economic or patrimonial violence
It is the violence that is exercised against a person (especially from men to women), in which their economic rights are violated through the disturbance of the possession or ownership of their property, as well as through the theft, deliberate destruction and retention of assets, work tools, personal documents, property and securities.
It refers to the use of those symbols that denote superiority of the perpetrator over the victim, and that express dominance of force.
Violence according to the modality
Political or institutional violence
Political violence is any practice of a political actor (individual or party), which conditions the citizen's access to their rights and responsibilities to their political adherence (patronage).
Institutional violence is understood to be all acts committed by public officials who, on behalf of the State, delay, hinder and interfere with citizen rights, especially when they impede access to justice, be it due to negligence, corruption, racial prejudice and gender or patronage.
It is about violence (psychological, physical or sexual) exerted in the workplace on a person. This violence can come from any subject regardless of the hierarchy: for example, a superior or co-workers. When it comes specifically from a superior or a person with a voice of command, it is considered that there is “abuse of power” with the purpose of bending the will of the worker in the exercise of his functions.
Domestic, family or intra-family violence
It refers to violence that is inflicted within the family group, which includes de facto or legally established partners. Violence can occur from men to women, from parents to children, and it can also involve other actors such as uncles, grandparents or relatives. Although intimate partner violence is usually male to female, the opposite is also true.
See also Family Violence.
It is about that violence exerted on the person because of their gender.Most of the victims of this type of violence are women, whose mistreatment is absolutely naturalized in the culture. The victims also include members of the LGBT community. Gender-based violence can range from disqualification to femicide, in which case it qualifies as a hate crime.
- Gender violence.
Racial violence is violence that is committed against a person because of their ethnic origin. It is also related to xenophobia. This type of violence is carried out by a perpetrator who believes in the superiority of his race.
Bullying and cyberbullying
Bullying is a word that comes from the English bully, which means 'intimidation'. It is used today to refer to the psychological and physical harassment suffered by a person in the student environment by their peers.
There is talk of cyberbullying when this harassment is done through social networks, in which it reaches high levels of psychological violence enhanced by the anonymity of the internet.